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Communication and Governance. 1860: Telegraph and Letters 1911: Airmail service 1917: Invisible ink banned / No useful information in letters 1940: Letters and diaries 1990: Email 2004: Freedom Calls 2010: Blogs / Skype. Excellent Data Resource: Worldmapper.

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Communication and Governance

  • 1860: Telegraph and Letters
  • 1911: Airmail service
  • 1917: Invisible ink banned /

No useful information in letters

  • 1940: Letters and diaries
  • 1990: Email
  • 2004: Freedom Calls
  • 2010: Blogs / Skype

Excellent Data Resource:


Internet Users






Freedom House

Map of Freedom



Watersheds of the World–Population Density

access to safe water
Access to Safe Water
  • Nearly 1.1 billion people (20% of the world’s population) lack access to safe drinking water.
  • Kills almost 4,500 children per day.
  • Worst “water stressed” countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
  • Climate and geography, lack of water systems and infrastructure, inadequate sanitation, high levels of arsenic and fluoride in drinking water.
  • Women and young girls trek as much as six miles everyday to retrieve water.
  • Obstacle to progress and development.




Urban and Rural Places

  • Population size and density
  • Thomas Jefferson’s vision
  • Characteristics: anonymity, social interactions
  • Economic functions
  • Spatial arrangements
  • Special problems?

Scranton, USGS 1891


Scranton, Pennsylvania


Scranton, Pennsylvania – Google Earth


Urban Areas

  • Environmental determinism: role of physical features – site and situation
  • Centrifugal forces: impel functions to migrate from central zone beyond it periphery
  • Centripetal forces: hold certain function in central zone and attract others
  • Central place theory: size and distribution of settlements dominated by marketing function

Central Place Theory's_central_place_theory_animation.gif


Auswanderer-karte und wegweiser nach Nordamerika

Immigrant Map and Signpost/Directory to North America

centers of population http www census gov geo www cenpop meancenter html
Centers of Population

Mean Population Point

Median Center of Population

The numerical center of population, is in no sense a center of gravity. In determining the median point, distance is not taken into account and the location of the units of population is considered only in relation to the intersecting median lines - as being north or south of the median parallel and east or west of the median meridian.

The center of population is the point at which an imaginary, weightless, rigid, and flat (no elevation effects) surface representation of the 48 conterminous states and the District of Columbia (or 50 states as appropriate to the computation) would balance if weights of identical size were placed on it so that each weight represented the location on one person.



Thank you