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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

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  1. Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [CRL-UWB Consortium’s Soft-Spectrum UWB PHY Proposal Update for IEEE 802.15.3a] Date Submitted: [18 July, 2003] Source: [Ryuji Kohno, Honggang Zhang, Hiroyo Ogawa ] Company [ (1) Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), (2) CRL-UWB Consortium ] Connector’s Address [3-4, Hikarino-oka, Yokosuka, 239-0847, Japan] Voice:[+81-468-47-5101], FAX: [+81-468-47-5431], E-Mail:[kohno@crl.go.jp, honggang@crl.go.jp, hogawa@crl.go.jp ] Re: [IEEE P802.15 Alternative PHY Call For Proposals, IEEE P802.15-02/327r7] Abstract: [Various modifications of our proposed Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) are introduced after brief review of SSA. We perform various SSA UWB proposals as cases with proper kernel functions and pulse shaping, so SSA is able to be introduced to implement either single-band or multiband systems. Moreover, various harmonization based on SSA are investigated considering co-existence, interference avoidance, matching with regulatory spectral mask, and high data rate.] Purpose: [For investigating the characteristics of High Rate Alternative PHY standard in 802.15TG3a, based on Soft-Spectrum Adaptation, pulse waveform shaping and Soft-Spectrum template receiving.] Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15. CRL-UWB Consortium

  2. Proposal Update: CRL-UWB Consortium’s Soft-Spectrum UWB PHY Proposal for IEEE 802.15.3a Ryuji KOHNO Director, UWB Technology Institute, CRL Professor, Yokohama National University Chair, CRL-UWB Consortium Honggang ZHANG, and Hiroyo OGAWA Communications Research Laboratory(CRL) & CRL-UWB Consortium CRL-UWB Consortium

  3. Major Contributors For This Proposal Update Ryuji KOHNO Shinsuke HARA Shigenobu SASAKI Tetsushi IKEGAMI Makoto ITAMI Kenichi TAKIZAWA Tetsuya YASUI Honggang ZHANG Kamya Y. YAZDANDOOST Yuko RIKUTA Hiroji AKAHORI Yosihito KITAYAMA Yoshiaki KURAISHI Toshiaki SAKANE Yoichi ISO Masatoshi TAKADA Yokohama National University Osaka University Niigata University Meiji University Science University of Tokyo Communications Research Laboratory Communications Research Laboratory Communications Research Laboratory Communications Research Laboratory Communications Research Laboratory Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. NEC Engineering, Ltd. Fujitsu Limited Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. Hitachi Kokusai Electric Inc. CRL-UWB Consortium

  4. CRL-UWB Consortium • ● Organization  • UWB Technology Institute of CRL and associating • Manufacturers and Academia. • ● Aim  • ■R&D and regulation of UWB wireless systems. • ■Channel measurement and modeling with experimental • analysis of UWB system test-bed in band (960MHz, • 3.1- 10.6GHz, 22-29GHz,and over 60GHz). • ■R&D of low cost module with higher data rate over • 100Mbps. • ■Contribution in standardization with ARIB, MMAC,      and MPHPT in Japan. CRL-UWB Consortium

  5. Outline of Presentation Summary of pervious Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) proposals of CRL-UWB Consortium What are the recent improvements in the CRL-UWB Consortium’s proposal? 2.1 Channel coding/decoding for SSA 2.2 Soft-SpectrumKeying in SSA 2.3 SSA system performance 2.4 Pre-equalization scheme in SSA 2.5 Multiple access scheme with RS Time-Frequency hopping sequence 2.6 Coexistence and narrowband interference mitigation 2.7 Link budget estimation 2.8 Receiver synchronization scheme 2.9 Frame architecture for IEEE802.15.3 MAC layer 2.10 Transceiver architecture based on SSA 2.11 Power consumption 2.12 Antenna practicality Global Harmonization with other UWB PHY proposals Self-Evaluation      Concluding remarks and Backup materials CRL-UWB Consortium

  6. Summary of • Previous CRL-UWB Consortium’s Proposal • on Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) UWB • for IEEE802.15.3a WPANs CRL-UWB Consortium

  7. What is Soft-Spectrum Adaptation UWB ? Basic Philosophy  Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) • Design a proper pulse waveform with high frequency efficiency corresponding to any frequency mask. • Adjust transmitted signal’s spectra in flexible so as to minimize interference with coexisting systems. Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) CRL-UWB Consortium

  8. Basic Formulation Example of Pulse Generator Synthesize a proper pulse waveform In case of multiband, a kernel function is a sinusoidal function. In case of impulse radio, a kernel function is a Gaussian, Hermitian pulse function etc. Feasible Solution: Pulse design satisfying Spectrum Mask • Divide (spread-and-shrink ) the whole bandwidth into several sub-bands Soft Spectrum (spectrum matching) • Pulse synthesized by several pulses that have different spectra  Soft Spectrum, M-ary signaling N division CRL-UWB Consortium

  9. 5 GHz W-LAN Power  Spectrum 1 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 2 3 7 f [GHz] N division N+α division Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) with Flexible Band Plan Single-band Dual- or Triple-band Multi-band In the future, if the restricting ruggedness of regional spectral mask (e.g. FCC mask) is eased, band allocation can be extended below 3.1 GHz or above 10.6 GHz. Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) can correspond freely CRL-UWB Consortium

  10. Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) Classification Free-Verse Type of SSA  A kernel function is non-sinusoidal, e.g. Gaussian, Hermitian pulse etc.  Single band, Impulse radio (2) Geometrical Type of SSA  A kernel function is sinusoidal with different frequency.  Multiband with carriers and Multi-carrier CRL-UWB Consortium

  11. Free-verse Type Soft-Spectrum Adaptation •  Freely design pulse waveforms by synthesizing pulses,e.g. overlapping and shifting 2.4GHz 5.2GHz time frequency K-3 Free-verse Soft-Spectrum Adaptation pulse (Note: band notches clearly happen at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz as well) time frequency K-4 Free-verse Soft-Spectrum Adaptation pulse (Note: pulse waveform has more freedom) CRL-UWB Consortium

  12. 1 0.8 1 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.4 0 0.2 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.2 -0.6 -0.4 -0.8 -0.6 1 0.8 0.6 Triangular-type envelope Exponential-type envelope 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.6 0 0.4 0.2 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.2 -0.6 -0.4 -0.8 -0.6 Cosine-type envelope Gaussian-type envelope -0.8 (2) Geometrical Type Soft-Spectrum Adaptation  Freely design pulse waveforms using various geometrical type envelopes CRL-UWB Consortium

  13. Global Coexistence with other Potential Interferences • Multiband/OFDM: Only (b) is available • SSA: Both (a) and (b) are available (a) Use of frequency band having low emission limit, but the same pulse energy is available by using wider bandwidth. (b) Simply eliminate the band if other services exist. • If more potential interferer should be considered, (b) does not work because it simply reduce the signal energy. • Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) approach provides more option to overcome future potential coexistence issue. CRL-UWB Consortium

  14. Features of Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) • Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) with flexible pulse waveform and frequency band can performsingle and multiband UWB by  Free-verse typepulse waveform shapingand  Geometrical typepulse waveform shaping, respectively. • Interference avoidanceforco-existence, harmonization for various proposals,andglobal implementationcan be carried out bySSA.  SSA can flexibly adjust UWB signal spectrum so as to match with spectral restriction in transmission power, i.e. spectrum masks in both cases ofsingleandmultiplebands. • Scalable, adaptive performance improvement • Smooth system version-up similar to Software Defined Radio (SDR). CRL-UWB Consortium

  15. Time-Frequency Hopping Intel, Wisair, etc. Kernel function SSA type Multiband with carrier Time-Frequency coding Sinusoidal GA, Philips Geometrical Multi-carrier TI:OFDM Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) Single/Dual-band Adaptive ST Microelectronics Free-verse Gaussian Mitsubishi (5th derivation) Hermitian CRL Harmonization Based on Soft-Spectrum Adaptation CRL-UWB Consortium

  16. 2. Recent Updates in CRL-UWB Consortium’s Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) Proposal CRL-UWB Consortium

  17. Key Idea • Serially concatenated structure between a channel encoder and pulse mapper • Combined iterative demapping/decoding (CIDD) can be achieved between Pulse demapper and Channel decoder Serially concatenated structure Outer encoder Inner encoder Channel encoder M-ary pulse mapper (MBOK, SK, PPM, …) bit interleaver Turbo decoding is internal iterative decoding Inner decoder Outer decoder Pulse correlator M-ary Pulse demapper Channel decoder Deinterleaver Turbo decoder Interleaver 2.1. Channel Coding and Decoding for SSA: Combined Iterative Demapping/Decoding (CIDD) CRL-UWB Consortium

  18. Combined Iterative Demapping/Decoding (CIDD) • Results • Assumption: • AWGN channel • 8-ary Bi-phase PPM • Convolutional code, K=3, [7,5]8 • Random interleaver • Interleaver size: 512 bits * Turbo decoding (Turbo coding) Correlator Demap. Turbo Dec. Deint. * CIDD (convolutional coding) Correlator Demap. Conv. Dec. Deint. Int. CIDD brings larger coding gain ! CRL-UWB Consortium

  19. 000 001 010 011 t 100 101 110 111 t 2.2. Soft Spectrum Keying: Pulse Shape Modulation (PSM) a) Free-verse type Modified Hermitian Pulse (MHP) CRL-UWB Consortium

  20. Free-verse Type SSA Pulse: Modified Hermitian Pulse Rx input Tx output Derivative • MHP waveforms with different orders are mutually orthogonal. • MHP waveforms may be changed by antenna and channel characteristics, but still holds orthogonality at the receiver through Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure for transmitted and template waveforms. CRL-UWB Consortium

  21. 001 010 011 000 t 101 110 111 100 t Soft Spectrum Keying: Pulse Shape Modulation (Cont.) b) Geometrical type • Transmit 2 bits by using BPSK/QPSK modulation in each Soft-SpectrumAdaptation pulse (Inner-keying) • Transmit other more bits by defining different Soft-SpectrumAdaptation pulse shapes and sequences (Outer-keying) CRL-UWB Consortium

  22. *1: 55 Mbps for preamble and PHY/MAC header parts *2: Both geometrical type and free-verse type support the same bit rates. *3: Pulse repetition interval: PRI *4: Coding: convolutional code (K=3, [5,7]8) Supported Bit Rates with Soft-Spectrum Keying CRL-UWB Consortium

  23. M correlator outputs Combined iterative demapping/decoding (CIDD) #M #2 M-ary PSM convolutional #1 Correlator Demapper Decoder DFE De-interleaver Interleaver Channel estimation Remapper Geometrical type Free-verse type #1 #2 #M #1 #2 #M ・・・ ・・・ frequency time or shape 2.3. SSA System Performance • interleaver: random interleaver • interleaver size: 512bits • decoding algorithm: max-log MAP • # of iterations: 4 • Including the losses due to • Channel estimation • Multipath degradation CRL-UWB Consortium

  24. SSA System Performance (Cont.) a) Free-verse type • 8-band, 1/2 rate-convolutional coding, CIDD, DFE • PER as a function of distance and channel model (90% link success probability) 125 Mbps 250 Mbps CRL-UWB Consortium

  25. SSA System Performance (Cont.) b) Geometrical type • 8-band, 1/2 rate-convolutional coding, CIDD, DFE • PER as a function of distance and channel model (90% link success probability) 125 Mbps 250 Mbps CRL-UWB Consortium

  26. 2.4. Pre-equalization for Pulse Shape Calibration channel antenna filter filter antenna X Y C Fr Ar Ft At Pulse shape in both time and frequency domain is strongly affected by filter, antenna and channel characteristics. pre-equalizer filter antenna X Xpre X At Ft Xpre=X Ft -1At-1 Xpost channel antenna filter post-equalizer Y C Fr Ar Xpost=YC-1 Ar-1 Fr-1 CRL-UWB Consortium

  27. Low Band Group High Band Group 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 F [GHz] 2.5. Simultaneous Operating Piconets in SSA (Geometrical Type) • Multi-band frequency divisions:  440 MHz separation between sub-bands  538 MHz sub-band bandwidth • Our proposed system uses Reed-Solomon(RS) sequence as a TFH sequence : Reed-Solomon Time-Frequency (RSTF) Hopping Sequence CRL-UWB Consortium

  28. Reed-Solomon Time-Frequency (RSTF) Hopping Sequence •  The RS Time-Frequency (RSTF) code has one collision property CRL-UWB Consortium

  29. Multiple Access Performance of RSTF sequences • Coding rate=1/2, K=3, Interleaver size=512 bits • 8-ary PSM+BPSK, AWGN BER performance for the number of interfering users, D/I=0dB BER performance for the different D/I, 1 interfering user D/I=(Received power ratio for the desired user) / ((Received power ratio for the interfering user) CRL-UWB Consortium

  30. Multiple Access Performance (Cont.) BER performance for the different D/I,2 interfering users BER performance for the different D/I,3 interfering users • Coding rate=1/2, K=3, Interleaver size=512 bits • 8-ary PSM+BPSK, AWGN • The same received power for the interfering users CRL-UWB Consortium

  31. SSA Dual Cycle Pulse SSA Free-verse Pulse Free-verse type Geometrical type IEEE802.11a Frequency spectrum with band notch Frequency spectrum with band notch 2.4GHz 5.2GHz 2.6. Coexistence and Narrowband Interference Mitigation  Interference reduction to/from IEEE802.11a/b WLAN by generating band notch using SSA pulse CRL-UWB Consortium

  32. Interference reduction to/from existing narrowband systems by generating band notch based on SSA pulse (Cont.) BER of DS-SS system while SSA UWBsystem causing interference BER of SSA UWB system while IEEE 802.11asystem causing interference  It is possible to vastly improve the influence of interference to/from existing systems including IEEE 802.11a/b WLAN using the SSA pulse.  SSA also realizes flexible interference control under various situations. CRL-UWB Consortium

  33. 2.7. Link Budget Estimation a) Free-verse type Assumption: AWGN, 0dBi TX/RX antenna gain CRL-UWB Consortium

  34. Link Budget Estimation (Cont.) b) Geometrical type Assumption: 8-band, AWGN, 0dBi TX/RX antenna gain CRL-UWB Consortium

  35. 12.288 µsec PLCP Preamble 96 repetitions of the same pattern MAC Header Tail Bits PHY Header Tail Bits Pad Bits FCS HCS Payload 3 Sections Coarse Timing Synchronization Frame Synchronization 32 patterns Fine Timing Synchronization Channel Estimation 32 patterns Packet Detection 32 patterns 2.8. Frame Architecture for IEEE802.15.3 MAC Layer  PLCP Frame Format in SSA • CRL’s SSA methods, both Free-verse type and Geometrical type, • use the same frame format as the IEEE802.15.3 PHY. CRL-UWB Consortium

  36. 0: Free-verse type 1: Geometrical type Rate Scrambler Init. Length Reserved PHY Header • We can design the waveform of the PN pattern in the preamble which is be detectable for bothFree-verse type and Geometrical type receivers. • We can use the reserved bit in the PHY header as an indicator to show which waveform type is employed in the payload, Free-verse type or Geometrical type. CRL-UWB Consortium

  37. PHY-SAP Throughput T_PHYHDR + T_MACHDR + T_HCS = 120 bits / 62.5Mbps = 1.92 μs T_MPDU = MPDU_bits / R_Pay T_FCS = 32bits (4bytes) / R_Pay T_PA_INITIAL = 12.288 μs T_MIFS = 2 μs T_PA_CONT = 6.144 μs T_SIFS = 10 μs Frame n Transmission Frame n-1 Transmission Preamble PHY HEADER MAC HEADER HCS MPDU FCS MIFS Preamble PHY HEADER MAC HEADER HCS MPDU FCS SIFS : data rate is R_Pay (=125, 250 500 Mbps ) : data rate is 62.5 Mbps • MPDU_bits is 8160bits (=1020 bytes) • MPDU_bits is 32736bits (=4092 bytes) CRL-UWB Consortium

  38. Frame Synchronization Correlator Soft Acquisition / Tracking Base - band Decision Unit Phase Reference [Acquisition] Symbol Sampling Sequence Data … … … … Demodulated Symbol Frame Sequence Synchronization Search Window Distance Detection Phase [Tracking] Tracking Phase … … … To show the end of each section n n Search Window 2.9. Frame and Symbol Synchronization Using the Defined Preamble Preamble structure … … … PN1 -PN32 PN33 -PN64 PN65 -PN96 CRL-UWB Consortium

  39. GCA Base Band Processor I X X A/D GCA GCA LNA I GCA X X A/D Q GCA GCA Q Freq. Hopping Synthesizer T/R SW I LO Sin Demod. X X I + Q X X Output Driver Q Free-verse Generator Geometrical Tx Free-verse Generator Free-verse Tx Free-verse Rx 2.10. Realization of Soft-Spectrum AdaptationTransceiver Geometrical Rx LO Sin Demodulator CRL-UWB Consortium

  40. 5GHz WLAN t1~t2 t5~t6 t7~t8 t6~t7 t0~t1 t2~t3 t4~t5 Amplifier S21 LNA f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 In Out Tx, Rx signal 3.1 Frequency [GHz] 10.6 f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 Output Driver Out In t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 • Receiving Interference suppression • Synthesizer (spurious) & Mixer performance relaxation • Giving Interference suppression -5 dB ~ -30 dB Time-Frequency Hopping Band-Pass Amplifier • Center frequency of band-pass characteristic (LNA, Output Driver) is changed in short time (<50ps) in accordance with hopping of input frequency. CRL-UWB Consortium

  41. Geometrical type  Total : 215 mW Soft-Spectrum Processing Bank Base-Band Unit BPF Waveform Generator Modulator Driver 10mW Mixer 5mW Digital: 150 mW PLL: 50 mW RF: 15 mW Free-verse type  Total: 176mW Waveform Generator Base-Band Unit BPF Modulator 33mW Driver 16mW Digital: 100 mW PLL: 27 mW RF: 49mW 2.11. Transmitter Power Consumption in SSA CRL-UWB Consortium

  42. Geometrical type  Total: 262 mW PLL: 50 mW Template Generator ADC Demodulator Base-band Unit Correlator VGA BPF LNA 10mW    10mW     (Mixer) 7mW Digital: 150 mW RF: 27 mW ADC: 35 mW Free-verse type  PLL: 27 mW Total: 195 mW Template Generator ADC Base-band Unit Correlator Demodulator VGA BPF LNA  16mW    16mW      9mW  RF: 41 mW ADC: 18 mW Digital: 109 mW Receiver Power Consumption in SSA CRL-UWB Consortium

  43. 2.12. Antenna Practicality • Antenna form (Antenna + RF circuit) • – smaller size for PC Card, Compact Flash, Memory Stick, • SD Memory, etc. • Response characteristics are almost flat across frequency range. • Suitable for Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) applications. CRL-UWB Consortium

  44. Gain/Axial Ratio (Theta=0.0, Phi=0.0) VSWR 7 5 6 4 5 3 Magnitude of VSWR 4 2 Magnitude of Gain/Axial Ratio [dBi] 1 3 0 2 Gain(P-Input) Gain(P-accepted) -1 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Frequency [GHz] Frequency [GHz] Fig. 1 Antenna gain characteristics proposed by CRL-UWB Consortium Fig. 2 Antenna VSWR characteristics proposed by CRL-UWB Consortium Scattering Matrix 0 -5 -10 Magnitude of Scattering Matrix [dB] -15 -20 -25 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Frequency [GHz] Fig. 3 Antenna S11 characteristics proposed by CRL-UWB Consortium CRL-UWB Consortium

  45. 3. Harmonization Based on SSA for All Proposed UWB Systems • Global Harmonization is the everlasting aim and basic philosophy of CRL-UWB Consortium. • CRL’s Soft-Spectrum Adaptation has a wide capability to be harmonized with all the proposed UWB systems: • Intel, General Atomics, ST Microelectronics, Samsung, TI, and so on. • Just changing the kernel functions and shapes of Soft-Spectrum Adaptation pulse waveforms. CRL-UWB Consortium

  46. Time-Frequency Hopping Intel, Wisair, etc. Kernel function SSA type Multiband with carrier Time-Frequency coding Sinusoidal GA, Philips Geometrical Multi-carrier TI:OFDM Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) Single/Dual-band Adaptive STMicroelectronics Free-verse Gaussian Mitsubishi (5th derivation) Hermitian CRL Harmonization Based on SSA CRL-UWB Consortium

  47. Modulation: M-ary Bi-orthogonal Keying + QPSK • No. of sub-bands: 7 • Pulse shape: 3 nsec pulse with rectified cosine shape The phase of each pulse is determined by another transmitted information data. f1 f2 f1 f2 f3 f4 *1 f3 f4 t f5 f6 f7 Each waveform can be considered to be a Pulse Shape in Pulse Shape Modulation(PSM). t *1: In this figure, the extension factor N = 1 3.1. SSA Harmonizationwith Intel’s Multi-Band Proposal CRL-UWB Consortium

  48. PPM 00 10 01 11 t PRI PRI PSM 3.2. SSA Harmonization with STMicroelectronics’ PPM Proposal • Modulation: 2–PPM + Polarity (for 123 Mbps) • Pulse shape: Full band pulse shape • Channel coding: Turbo coding * The concept of full band pulse shape of STM is quite close to CRL’s Free-verse SSA philosophy. Each STM’s waveform can be considered to be a Pulse Shape in SSA’s Pulse Shape Modulation(PSM). At the receiver, use of correlation between each pulse shape and received waveform gives a large advantage to the transmission performance. CRL-UWB Consortium

  49. By SSA itself 2.4GHz 5.2GHz Time Domain Frequency Domain Notch Filter (STMicroelectronics) Potential Harmonization between Free-verse SSA and STMicroelectronics CRL-UWB Consortium

  50. Potential Harmonization between Free-verse SSA and STMicroelectronics (Cont.) • STMicroelectronics have proposed “Flexible data rate” where “PRP is easily changed”. CRL-UWB Consortium