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Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring. Alan Mainwaring, Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, and David Culler Intel Research Lab. / UCBerkely Seo, Dong Mahn. Contents. Introduction Application Requirements System Architecture Design and Implementation Strategies

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wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring

Wireless Sensor Networksfor Habitat Monitoring

Alan Mainwaring, Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, and David Culler

Intel Research Lab. / UCBerkely

Seo, Dong Mahn

  • Introduction
  • Application Requirements
  • System Architecture
  • Design and Implementation Strategies
  • Sensor Network Services
  • Current Progress
  • Additional materials
  • Conclusion
  • Habitat and environmental monitoring
  • Technical interests in these applications
    • developing an appropriate sensor network architecture
    • simple, concrete solutions
    • application-driven approach
      • actual problems from potential ones
      • relevant issues from irrelevant ones
    • collaboration with scientists in other fields
introduction cont
Introduction (cont.)
  • Instrumentation of natural spaces with networked sensors
    • long-term data collection at scales
    • localized measurements
    • detailed information
    • integration of on-board processing, local storage, networking
      • complex filtering and triggering functions
      • application- and sensor-specific data compression algorithms
introduction cont1
Introduction (cont.)
  • complete integration
    • produces smaller, low-power devices
    • increased power efficiency  flexibility
    • low-power radios with well-designed protocol
  • A specific habitat monitoring application
    • collection of requirements, constraints and guidelines
    • basis for the resulting sensor network architecture in the real-world
    • hardware and sensor platforms
    • patch gateways, basestations and databases
    • design and implementation of the essential network services
      • power management, communications, retasking and node management
application requirements
Application Requirements
  • Field Stations and Research Overviews
    • Great Duck Island (GDI)
      • 44.09N, 68.15W, 237 acre, State of Maine
      • focus on basic ecology, large breeding colonies of Leech’s Strom Petrels and other seabirds
      • basic environmental parameters
        • light, temperature, humidity, pressure
      • entrance/exit events
    • the James San Jacinoto Mountains Reserve (JMR)
      • 33.48N, 116.46W, 29 acre, California
      • NSF Center : sensing infrastructures, multimedia sensors
      • monitoring ecosystems
        • response of vegetation to climate changes
        • acoustical sensing of birds for identification, estimation populations
application requirements cont
Application Requirements (cont.)
  • General application requirements
    • Internet access
    • Hierarchical network
      • Field stations need host Internet connectivity and database systems
      • Habitats are located up to several kilometers
      • multiple patches of sensor networks
      • 3 to 4 patches of 100 static (not mobile) nodes
    • Sensor network longevity
      • run for 9 months from non-rechargeable power sources
      • multiple field seasons
application requirements cont1
Application Requirements (cont.)
  • Operating off-the-grid
    • operate with bounded energy supplies
    • renewable energy
  • Management at-a-distance
    • to monitor and manage sensor networks over the Internet
    • except for installation and removal of nodes
  • Inconspicuous operation
    • should not disrupt the natural processes or behaviors
  • System behavior
    • SNs exhibit stable, predictable, and repeatable behavior
application requirements cont2
Application Requirements (cont.)
  • In-situ interactions
    • Local interactions
      • initial deployment, maintenance tasks
    • PDA
      • query a sensor, adjust operational parameters, or simply assist in location devices
  • Sensors and sampling
    • light, temperature, infrared, relative humidity, barometric pressure
    • acceleration/vibration, weight, chemical vapors, gas concentrations, pH, noise levels
application requirements cont3
Application Requirements (cont.)
  • Data models
    • Archiving sensor readings for offline data mining and analysis
    • logs to databases in the wired, powered infrastructure
    • nodal data summaries, periodic health-and-status monitoring
system architecture
System Architecture
  • lowest lever of the sensing application
    • autonomous sensor nodes
      • general purpose computational module
        • programmable unit
        • computation, storage, bidirectional communication
        • with analog and digital sensors
        • 2 advantages from traditional data logging systems
          • can be retasked, can easily communicate
      • application-specific sensing module
    • smaller and cheaper individual sensors
      • higher robustness
      • cooperation
      • multihop network, forwarding each other’s messages
      • in-network aggregation
system architecture cont
System Architecture (cont.)
  • Sensor Gateway
    • each sensor patch
    • communicate with the sensor network and provides commercial WLAN
    • AP is co-located with the base station
    • additional computation and storage
    • enough energy from a car battery
  • Base Station
    • power, housing
    • communicates with the sensor patch via WLAN
    • WAN, persistent data storage
    • “custody transfer” model : SMTP messages, bundles
system architecture cont1
System Architecture (cont.)
  • User interaction
    • access the replica of the base station database
      • easy integration with data analysis and mining tools
    • remote control of the network
      • PDA-sized device, gizmo
system architecture cont3



Sensor Node

Sensor Patch


Transit Network


Client Data Browsing

and Processing


Base-Remote Link

Data Service

System Architecture (cont.)
design and implementation strategies
Design and Implementation Strategies
  • Sensor Network Node
    • UC Berkely motes, MICA
    • single channel, 916MHz radio, 40kbps
    • Atmel Atmega 103 microcontroller running at 4MHz
    • 512KB nonvolatile storage
    • 2 AA batteries, DC boost converter
design and implementation strategies cont
Design and Implementation Strategies (cont.)
  • Sensor Board
    • environmental monitoring sensor board
    • Mica Weather Board
    • barometric pressure module
      • 0.1 mbar from 300 to 1100mbar
    • humidity sensor
      • 1 picofarad (±3% relative humidity)
    • thermopile, passive infrared sensor
    • photoresistor, temperature
    • unique combination of sensors
      • variety of aggregate operations
design and implementation strategies cont1
Design and Implementation Strategies (cont.)
  • I2C analog to digital converter
    • 8 by 8 power switch
  • interoperability
    • 51 pin expansion connector
design and implementation strategies cont2
Design and Implementation Strategies (cont.)
  • Energy budget
    • run for 9 months, 2 AA batteries
    • 2200mAh at volts, 8,148 mAh per day
    • sleep state
      • turning off sensors, radio, putting processor into sleep mode
    • modify Mica motes with a Schottky diode
design and implementation strategies cont3
Design and Implementation Strategies (cont.)
  • Electro-mechanical Packaging
    • to protect the device, weather-proofing
  • Patch Gateways
    • CerfCube, StrongArm-based embedded system
    • CompactFlash-based 802.11b
    • Linux, IBM MicroDrive up to 1GB
    • Solar panel
  • Base-station installation
    • JMR : T1 line, GDI : two-way satellite connetion
    • turnkey system
design and implementation strategies cont4
Design and Implementation Strategies (cont.)
  • Database Management System
    • Postgres SQL database
    • time-stamped reading from sensors
    • health status of individual sensors
    • network
    • metadata
  • User Interfaces
    • GIS systems, statistics and data analysis packages
    • powerful interfaces to relational databases
    • web based interface, gizmo
design and implementation strategies cont5

Satellite router

WWW power strip

4-port VPN router and

16-port Ethernet switch

IBM laptop #1


Northern WAP

Wireless bridge

Power over LAN midspan

IBM laptop #2

Burrow Camera Configuration

Sensor Patch

12VDC, 0.9A

Southern WAP

12V PoL

Active Splitter


Axis 2401 Video Server


916 MHz

Axis 2130 PTZ South

Web power strip

IR Burrow Camera #1

IR Burrow Camera #5


IR Burrow Camera #6

IR Burrow Camera #2

IR Burrow Camera #7

IR Burrow Camera #3


Power over LAN Midspan

Ethernet switch

IR Burrow Camera #8

IR Burrow Camera #4

Wireless bridge

110VAC service


Design and Implementation Strategies (cont.)
sensor network services
Sensor Network Services
  • Data sampling and collection
    • cost of data processing and compression against cost of data transmission
    • each packet 25bytes
sensor network services cont
Sensor Network Services (cont.)
  • Communications
    • hardware and a set of routing and media access algorithms
    • GAF (Geographic Adaptive Fidelity), SPAN
sensor network services cont1
Sensor Network Services (cont.)
  • proposed approaches for scheduled communication
    • initial routing tree  set each mote’s lever form gateway  schedule nodes  sleep state  following level is awaken and packets are relayed  until completed  entire network return to sleep mode
    • path or subtree
  • low power MAC protocol
    • S-MAC, Aloha
    • turning off radio during idle periods
sensor network services cont2
Sensor Network Services (cont.)
  • Network Retasking
    • to adjust the functionality of individual nodes
      • duty cycle, sampling rates …
    • tiny virtual machine, Maté
  • Health and Status Monitoring
    • monitoring the mote’s health and the health of neighboring motes
    • Health and monitoring messages sent to the gateway
    • not reliable transport, low latency, infrequently
current progress
Current Progress
  • deployed
    • two small scale sensor networks in JMR and GDI
    • all core architecture components
  • plan to add an intermediate tier of WLAN
  • need calibration or auto-calibration procedure
  • current focus
    • energy efficient strategies for multihop routing
    • will evaluate
  • intention
    • to develop and package a habitat monitoring kit
    • will be completed in 6 months
    • goal is to tackle the technical problems and to meet the application requirements set
additional materials
Additional Materials
  • Node architecture advances
    • Problems observed in previous deployment
      • Size – motes were too large to fit in many burrows
      • Packaging – did not provide adequate protection for electronics or proper conditions for sensors
      • Reliability – last retreat talk; high rate of node loss, lack of scientifically meaningful environmental data
      • Power consumption – boost converter a minimal return at a high price
    • New generation of motes to address most of these concerns
      • Platform based on mica2dot
      • Primarily calibrated, digital sensors
      • Multiple application-specific packaging, power, and sensing options
additional materials cont2
Additional Materials (cont)
  • Miniature weather station
    • Sensor suite
      • Sensirion humidity + temperature sensor
      • Intersema pressure + temperature sensor
      • TAOS total solar radiation sensor
      • Hamamatsu PAR sensor
      • Radiation sensors measure both direct and diffuse radiation
    • Power supply
      • SAFT LiS02 battery, ~1 Ah @ 2.8V
    • Packaging
      • HDPE tube with coated sensor boards on both ends of the tube
      • Additional PVC skirt to provide extra shade and protection against the rain
additional materials cont3
Additional Materials (cont)
  • Burrow occupancy detector
    • Sensor suite
      • Sensirion humidity + temperature sensor
      • Melexis passive IR sensor + conditioning circuitry
    • Power supply
      • GreatBatch lithium thionyl chloride 1 Ah battery
      • Maxim 5V boost converter for Melexis circuitry
    • Packaging
      • Sealed HDPE tube, emphasis on small size
additional materials cont4
Additional Materials (cont)
  • Software architecture advances
    • Bi-directional communication with low-power listenting
      • 0.1% duty cycle
      • Parameter adjustment and query
      • Sample rate changes, sensor status queries
    • Improved power management scheme
      • Fine granularity through StdControl interface
      • 20 uA sleep mode
    • Multihop deployment planned for July
    • What it isn’t: GSK
      • Emphasis on simplicity and reliability, rather than generality
      • Compatible with most GSK server-side interfaces
additional materials cont5
Additional Materials (cont)
  • Application status
    • Sensor network
      • 26 burrow motes deployed
      • 12 weather station motes deployed (+2 for monitoring the insides of the base station case)
        • Another 14 are awaiting deployment within days
    • Redundant database setup online
      • 2 base stations logging packets to 2 database servers
      • Replication to Berkeley
    • Verification infrastructure
      • Overview cameras in place
      • Burrow cameras temporarily offline, wireless bridge problem
      • Video logging still needs to be synchronized with the mote data service
additional materials cont6
Additional Materials (cont)
  • Packaging evaluation
    • We observed what happens to motes when packaging fails
      • Battery venting, H2SO3 corroding the entire mote
      • Need to assemble the package correctly – we failed to create proper indication os a good seal
      • Majority of packages survived severe weather!
    • Still awaiting evaluation whether the package creates an environment suitable for sensing
      • Convective heating, etc.
additional materials cont13
Additional Materials (cont)
  • http://www.jamesreserve.edu/
additional materials cont14
Additional Materials (cont)
  • http://www.greatduckisland.net/
  • Habitat and environmental monitoring
    • important class of sensor network applications
  • collaborating with
    • College of the Atlantic and the James Reserve
  • low-level energy constraints of the sensor nodes
  • data delivery requirements
  • energy budget
  • Tight energy bounds and the need for predictable operation guide the development of application architecture and services.
  • http://www.jamesreserve.edu/
  • http://www.greatduckisland.net/
  • Robert Szewczyk, Joe Polastre, Alan Mainwaring, “Fresh from the boat: Great Duck Island habitat monitoring”, June 18, 2003
  • Alan Mainwaring, Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, David Culler, John Anderson, “Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring”, ACM WSNA’02, September 28, 2002, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Joseph Robert Polastre, “Design and Implementation ofWireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring”
  • Kemal Akkaya, Mohamed Younis, “A Survey on Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”
  • Wei Hong, “Overview of the Generic Sensor Kit (GSK)”
  • Robert Szewczyk, “Application-driven research on TinyOS platform”