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Image Mosaic Techniques for the Restoration of Virtual Heritage. 2003. 8. 28. Yong-Moo Kwon, Ig-Jae Kim, Tae-Sung Lee, Se-Un Ryu, Jae-Kyung Seol KIST KOREA. Contents. Revisiting Image Mosaic Technique Our Researches for Image Mosaic IR Reflectography Image Mosaic X-Ray Image Mosaic

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image mosaic techniques for the restoration of virtual heritage

Image Mosaic Techniquesfor the Restoration of Virtual Heritage

2003. 8. 28

Yong-Moo Kwon, Ig-Jae Kim,

Tae-Sung Lee, Se-Un Ryu, Jae-Kyung Seol





Revisiting Image Mosaic Technique

Our Researches for Image Mosaic

IR Reflectography Image Mosaic

X-Ray Image Mosaic


revisiting image mosaic technique

Revisiting Image Mosaic Technique

Image Mosaicing

Panorama Image

Image Based Rendering (IBR)

Basic Algorithm

Registration using Features

Image Warping based on Homography Matrix

Blending Images

target dimension in view of image mosaicing

Target Dimension in view of Image Mosaicing

2D Target

Planar Paintings Image

Homography Technique

Feature-Based Image Mosaicing

3D Target

3D Real World Image

Limitation using Homography

Due to Depth Difference b/w Features in Target

our research for image mosaic

Our Research for Image Mosaic

2D Target

IR Reflectography

Mural Underdrawings Mosaic

Special 3D Target

X-Ray Imaging

Old Sword X-Ray Image Mosaic

Research Topics

How to extract and use Features

Imaging Media (IR, X-Ray)

Feature’s characteristics are different from the previous ones

IR Reflectography System
    • IR Source
    • IR Filter
    • IR Camera


ir reflectography principle
IR Reflectography Principle

Visible Light


Color Painting,






Back Frame

ir reflectography camera
IR Reflectography Camera
  • IR Camera : Super eye C2847 (~1.9㎛)
      • Hamamatsu
  • IR Source : ~1.9㎛
  • IR Filter : CVI Laser Corp.
      • NIR bandwidth filter
        • 800nm ~ 2000nm Pass
      • Bandpass Filter
        • every 100 nm bandpass filter (800nm, 900, …, 2000nm)
      • IR Characteristics to Mural according to WL
IR Camera
    • HAMAMATSU Super eye C2847
    • WL Range : 0.4㎛ ~ 1.9㎛
  • IR Source
    • HAMAMATSU C1385-02


    • HAMAMATSU IR-D80A : 0.8㎛ ~ 1.9㎛
    • CVI Laser corporation
      • Near IR Interference BP filter

800nm, 900nm, … 2000nm

  • Sony PC-115
    • Digital Image Capture
    • Night Shot
ir image mosaic for mural underdrawing
IR Image Mosaic for Mural Underdrawing
  • Basic Method
    • Automatic Feature Extraction
    • Registration Using Features
    • Image Warping
    • Image Blending
  • Main Considerations
    • IR Wavelength Characteristics
      • Penetration Ratio into Paintings
        • Color (Red, Green, Blue etc)
        • Color Painting Depth

Our Approach

  • ▶ Automatic Feature Extraction & Registration
  • - Cross Points in IR Underdrawing Image
  • - Grid Pattern for Blank Space
  • ▶ Adaptive Overlapping Area For Image Blending
  • - Trade-Off between Registration and Blending
      • * Large Overlapping Area: Good for Registration
      • * Small Overlapping Area: Good for Blending
  • ▶ Use feature of IR Spectrum
  • - Use Different IR Wavelength according to paining color

Automatic Feature Extraction

 Feature of Korea Murals

- Many Blank Space

- Not so much good features

1> Visible Light Pattern

2> Twice Captures

- w/o IR Filter

- w/i IR Filter


IR Image Mosaic

- Homography Estimation using Grid Image & IR Image

- Apply Homography to IR Image

why we use x ray technique
Why we use X-ray Technique ?
  • Old Sword
    • Old Sword is inside Sword Cover
      • Weak for Touch & Manipulation
      • Can’t Open Sword Cover
    • Use X-Ray Technique for the restoration of Old Sword inside Sword Cover

Schema of a x-ray imaging using a linear X-Ray Camera

  • X-Ray Image
  • X-Ray Tube
  • X-Rays
  • X-Ray Detector
  • PC
  • Object
why x ray image mosaic

Why X-Ray Image Mosaic ?

For High Resolution Imaging

Multiple X-Ray Imaging

Setting Object

X-Ray Image Capture

Move Object Upward or Downward Step-By-Step

Stitching X-Ray Images into High Resolution Image

x ray imaging principle

X-Ray Imaging Principle

Basic Principle

X-Ray Particle Penetrates through Target

One Point Depth -> Grey Value Pixel


Target Depth

Target Material

x ray image characteristics 2d or 3d

X-Ray Image Characteristics: 2D or 3D ?

Target Dimension in view of Image Mosaic

Well Controlled Penetration Angle

Image Pixel Depends on Penetration Angle

Usually Same Penetration Angle for Each Capture

Orthogonal axis Movement according to X-Ray Beam

Just Planar 2D Image Using CCD Camera

Object -> X-Ray Camera -> CCD Camera

2D Target: Homography Technique

x ray image equipment
X-RAY Image Equipment

X-TEK X-Ray System

X-Ray Source & Object (Sword)

x ray image capture
X-RAY Image Capture
  • For High-Resolution Restoration
    • Multiple X-Ray Imaging
    • Image Stitching Technique
    • Feature-based Registration
  • Problem ?
    • Difficult to use features in X-ray Image
    • Using Feature Pattern
feature extraction
Feature Extraction
  • Feature Extraction From Known Pattern
    • Circle Type & Rectangular Type
      • Circle Type -> Pattern Matching
      • Rectangular -> Feature Points
feature extraction27
Feature Extraction
  • Method
    • Circle Type Pattern -> Apply Image Labeling
    • Rectangular Type Pattern -> Corner Detection

- For every pixel of image, computes first derivatives Dx and Dy.

- The eigenvalues are found by solving det(C- λI )= 0

If λ1, λ2> t, where t is some threshold, then a corner is found at that location

feature point matching
Feature Point Matching

Semi-auto Demo

  • Semi-Auto(Present)
    • Automatic Feature Extraction of Rectangle Type pattern
    • Manual Matching
  • Automatic Matching


    • Classify the features using pattern ID from Circle Type Pattern
  • Homography Matrix
    • Apply LS-Method(Least Square Method) using Matched feature Points
implemented s w
Implemented S/W


Image File


Feature Extraction &

Select Points

Homography Matrix Estimation & Stitching

Generated High-Resolution X-ray Image



Application of Image Mosaicing Techniques

Infrared Image

X-Ray Image

Our Approach

Feature Pattern

Automatic Feature Extraction & Registration

Homography Technique

Imaging Media (IR, X-Ray) & Feature’s Characteristics

thank you

Thank You !