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Routing on the internet. COSC 6590. Routing Protocols. routers receive and forward packets make decisions based on knowledge of topology and traffic/delay conditions use dynamic routing algorithm distinguish between: routing information - about topology & delays

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routing protocols
Routing Protocols
  • routers receive and forward packets
  • make decisions based on knowledge of topology and traffic/delay conditions
  • use dynamic routing algorithm
  • distinguish between:
    • routing information - about topology & delays
    • routing algorithm - that makes routing decisions based on information
performance criteria
Performance Criteria
  • used for selection of route
  • simplest is “minimum hop”
  • can be generalized as “least cost”
autonomous systems as
Autonomous Systems (AS)
  • is a group of routers and networks managed by single organization
  • which exchange information via a common routing protocol
  • form a connected network
    • at least one path between any pair of nodes
    • except in times of failure
interior and exterior router protocols
Interior and Exterior Router Protocols
  • interior router protocol (IRP)
    • passes routing information between routers within AS
    • can be tailored to specific applications
    • needs detailed model of network to function
  • may have more than one AS in internet
    • routing algorithms & tables may differ between them
  • routers need info on networks outside own AS
  • use an exterior router protocol (ERP) for this
    • supports summary information on AS reachability
approaches to routing distance vector
Approaches to Routing – Distance-vector
  • each node (router or host) exchange information with neighboring nodes
  • first generation routing algorithm for ARPANET
    • eg. used by Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
  • each node maintains vector of link costs for each directly attached network and distance and next-hop vectors for each destination
  • requires transmission of much info by routers
    • distance vector & estimated path costs
  • changes take long time to propagate
approaches to routing link state
Approaches to Routing – Link-state
  • designed to overcome drawbacks of distance-vector
  • each router determines link cost on each interface
  • advertises set of link costs to all other routers in topology
  • if link costschange, router advertises new values
  • each router constructs topology of entire configuration
    • can calculate shortest path to each dest
    • use to construct routing table with first hop to each dest
  • do not use distributed routing algorithm, but any suitable alg to determine shortest paths, eg. Dijkstra's algorithm
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state protocol
what exterior routing protocols are not
What Exterior Routing Protocols are not
  • link-state and distance-vector not effective for exterior router protocol
  • distance-vector
    • assumes routers share common distance metric
    • but different ASs may have different priorities & needs
    • but have no info on AS’s visited along route
  • link-state
    • different ASs may use different metrics and have different restrictions
    • flooding of link state information to all routers unmanageable 
exterior router protocols path vector
Exterior Router Protocols –Path-vector
  • alternative path-vector routing protocol
    • provides info about which networks can be reached by a given router and ASs crossed to get there
    • does not includedistance or cost estimate
    • hence dispenses with concept of routing metrics
  • have list of all ASs visited on a route
  • enables router to perform policy routing
    • eg. avoid path to avoid transiting particular AS
    • eg. link speed, capacity, tendency to become congested, and overall quality of operation, security
    • eg. minimizing number of transit ASs
border gateway protocol bgp
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
  • developed for use with TCP/IP internets
  • is preferred EGP of the Internet
  • uses messages sent over TCP connection
  • current version is BGP-4 (RFC1771)
  • functional procedures
    • neighbor acquisition - when agree to exchange info
    • neighbor reachability - to maintain relationship
    • network reachability - to update database of routes
bgp messages
BGP Messages
  • Open
  • Update
  • Keep alive
  • Notification
message types open keepalive
Message Types -Open & KeepAlive
  • router makes TCP connection to neighbor
  • Open message
    • sent by connection initiator
    • includes proposed hold time
    • receiver uses minimum of own/sent hold time
    • max time between Keepalive and/or Update
  • Keep Alive message
    • To tell other routers that this router is still here
message types update
Message Types - Update
  • Update message conveys two info types:
    • Info about single routes through internet
    • List of routes being withdrawn
  • info on a route uses 3 fields:
    • Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI)
    • Total Path Attributes Length
    • Path Attributes
  • withdraw route identified by dest IP address
message types update 2
Message Types – Update (2)
  • Origin - IGP or EGP
  • AS_Path - list of AS traversed
  • Next_hop - IP address of border router
  • Multi_Exit_Disc - info on routers internal to AS
  • Local_pref - inform routers in AS of route pref
  • Atomic_Aggregate, Aggregator - implement route aggregation to reduce amount of info
as path and next hop use
AS_Path and Next_Hop Use
  • AS_Path
    • used to implement routing policies
      • eg. to avoid a particular AS, security, performance, quality, number of AS crossed
  • Next_Hop
    • only a few routers implement BGP
    • responsible for informing outside routers of routes to other networks in AS
notification message
Notification Message
  • sent when some error condition detected:
  • Message header error
  • Open message error
  • Update message error
  • Hold time expired
  • Finite state machine error
  • Cease
bgp routing information exchange
BGP Routing Information Exchange
  • within AS a router builds topology picture using IGP
  • router issues Update message to other routers outside AS using BGP
  • these routers exchange info with other routers in other AS
    • AS_Path field used to prevent loops
  • routers must then decide best routes
open shortest path first rfc2328
Open Shortest Path First (RFC2328)
  • IGP of Internet
  • replaced Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
  • uses Link State Routing Algorithm
    • each router keeps list of state of local links to network
    • transmits update state info
    • little traffic as messages are small and not sent often
  • uses least cost based on user cost metric
  • topology stored as directed graph
    • vertices or nodes (router, transit or stub network)
    • edges (between routers or router to network)
  • William Stallings, 8th edition, section 19.2
least cost algorithms
Least Cost Algorithms
  • basis for routing decisions
    • can minimize hop with each link cost 1
    • or have link value inversely proportional to capacity
  • defines cost of path between two nodes as sum of costs of links traversed
    • in network of nodes connected by bi-directional links
    • where each link has a cost in each direction
  • for each pair of nodes, find path with least cost
    • link costs in different directions may be different
  • alternatives: Dijkstra or Bellman-Ford algorithms
dijkstra s algorithm
Dijkstra’s Algorithm
  • finds shortest paths from given source node s to all other nodes
  • by developing paths in order of increasing path length
  • algorithm runs in stages (next slide)
    • each time adding node with next shortest path
  • algorithm terminates when all nodes processed by algorithm (in set T)
dijkstra s algorithm method
Dijkstra’s Algorithm Method
  • Step 1 [Initialization]
    • T = {s} Set of nodes so far incorporated
    • L(n) = w(s, n) for n ≠ s
    • initial path costs to neighboring nodes are simply link costs
  • Step 2[Get Next Node]
    • find neighboring node not in T with least-cost path from s
    • incorporate node into T
    • also incorporate the edge that is incident on that node and a node in T that contributes to the path
  • Step 3[Update Least-Cost Paths]
    • L(n) = min[L(n), L(x) + w(x, n)]for all nÏ T
    • f latter term is minimum, path from s to n is path from s to x concatenated with edge from x to n
  • William Stallings, 8th edition, section 12.3.