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Doctors, Medical Professors and Students in Belgium during WWII: the connection of anti-Semitism and anti-Masonry versus the Resistance dr. Yves Louis (pediatrician – Secretary-General of the Belgian Association of Medical Trade Unions BVAS) Marc Verschooris (lecturer Hogeschool Gent).

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Doctors, Medical Professors and Students in Belgium during WWII: the connection of anti-Semitism and anti-Masonry versus the Resistancedr. Yves Louis (pediatrician – Secretary-General of the Belgian Association of Medical Trade Unions BVAS)Marc Verschooris (lecturer Hogeschool Gent)

anti semitism and anti masonry
Anti-Semitism and Anti-Masonry
  • Between two WW and even before
  • Belgiumstrong influence on extreme right wing movementsanti-Dreyfusards + French Pétainistes
eugenism racism
Eugenism - Racism
  • Well spread even in scientific surroundingsfirst insidious then in a more aggressive way
doctors
Doctors
  • France: triumvirateCéline (docteur Destouches)Alexis CarrelGeorge Montandon (eugenist)  Brussels 1938, May 3rd
  • Belgium: doctors (right wing) + strong conservative and catholic attitude
doctors belgium
Doctors - Belgium
  • University of Ghent: professors – doctors in collaborationExclusion of Prof. Handovksy: involvement of Heymans (Nobel Prize) & Daels
  • Rex Movement: Ouwerxonly target: attack Jews and FreemasonsJewish-Masonic ConspiracyWartime Order of Medicine  Germans prefer Frans Van Hoof (anti-Semite)
anti in several ways
Anti in several ways
  • Anti-Masonry
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Communism
  • Anti-Socialism
  • Anti-Psychanalysissupposed to be Jewish so can also harm the family
ouwerx
Ouwerx
  • Anti-Freemasonry led by Ouwerx → Epuration – Bezem
  • Cagoulards (Hiding Hood) → list of presumed Freemasons (1939)will be published in La Libre Belgique and Le Pays Réel
ouwerx1
Ouwerx
  • 1940: another booklet(Précurseurs = preceding)
  • Already before WWII he had published Trois Impostures: the Imianitoff Affairthe Freemasonry andthe Influence of Communism in Medicine
doctor imianitoff
Doctor Imianitoff

Frédéric Imianitoff

→ Jewish + Freemason origin→ Bachelor in Medicine (England)→ Founder of preventive medicine → Secretary General of Belgian Preventive Medicine and Eugenism→ with Rene Sand considered as founder of Social Medicine

ren sand
René Sand
  • Sand 1877-1953
  • 1900: doctor (ULB)
  • 1919: involved in development of social medicine
  • 1936: Secretary-General of Public Health
  • Imianitoff & Sand chased as Freemasons
the imianitoff scandal
The Imianitoff Scandal
  • In 1937 scandal will burst outPaul de Mont (Rex)Edmond van Dieren (VNV)
  • 1938-1939 more opponents e.g. Daels (Ghent)
  • 1939: 6 months prison for falsifying not for practising medicine
result of imianitoff affair
Result of Imianitoff Affair
  • All the hate is gathered in the Affair, all contradictions, all antagonisms of that moment
  • Prof. Jacques De Busscher (Psychiatry, Ghent) and Freemason (Septentrion)
the ambivalence
The Ambivalence
  • Preventive Medecine
  • The Eugenism
  • The Corporatism
preventive medicine
Preventive Medicine
  • The Preventive Medicine of Imianitoff & Sandconsidered als Communist and Collectivisteven Jewish-Communist Conspiracy
  • Nazi-Germany + France of Pétain inspire Alexis Carrel to introduce an hygienistic and preventive medicinewill led to extermination
  • Note: preventive medicine is always depending on political regime
eugenism
Eugenism
  • Positive eugenism = preventive medicine
  • Negative eugenism = sterilisation, euthanasia…The Nazi-eugenism was ready to kill → T4
corporatism
Corporatism
  • The Corporatism introduced by Ouwerx was a fascist Order and the opposite of↕
  • Democratic Doctor’s Syndicates
the protocols of the elders of zion
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
  • Ouwerx refers to the Protocols but also to the Bern Trial (1935) where Nazi’s try to prove the authenticityIn 1935, Russia is not a great help remembering the falsifier Mathieu Golovinski who had left the Okhrana, the Tsarist Secret Police and the country.
ghent university
Ghent University
  • Political « Guard » of the University- Historian Franz Petri (Kriegsverwaltungsrat)- form a new German intellectual centre→ political centre of collaboration→ referring to von Bissing-University- Volksforschung/Germanenkunde→ only possible in Ghent (Petri)→ urgent call for German guest professors
ghent faculty of medicine
Ghent Faculty of Medicine
  • Situation 1940- Frans Daels ↔ Toulouse professors- Daels & Speleers terrorize Faculty → opposition Francophone profs (Hautes Etudes)
  • Leonardo Conti- Reichsgesundheitsführer- June 23, 1941: invitation by Faculty of Medicine → Daels & Speleers: meeting in Marburg
leonardo conti 1900 1945
Leonardo Conti(1900-1945)

Member SA (1923) en SS (1933) – anti-Semite

Leader of the National Socialist German Doctors’ League (NSDAP)

Leader of Main Office for the Public Health during Third Reich

T-4 Euthanasia Program

university of brussels ulb
University of Brussels (ULB)
  • Strong liberal-socialist character since 1834
  • 1940: can continue after replacing 75 radical professors by reliable Flemish colleagues
  • Flemish activists  Flemish students at ULB
  • Faculty of Medicine  great loss = anti-Jewish
university of brussels ulb1
University of Brussels (ULB)
  • 4 German-minded profs  force closing of university on Nov. 25th, 1941 Antoon Jacob: sentenced to death in 1919
  • 300 teaching personal + 3600 students
  • Closed officially by Reeder on August 13th, 1942
university of leuven
University of Leuven
  • Total Belgian students at University: 12.000
  • 1941: 583 students from the ULB
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Anti-Semitism and Anti-Masonry existed long before WWII
conclusion 2 nobel prizes
Conclusion 2: Nobel Prizes
  • Hitler saw himself as the political Robert Koch (Nobel Prize 1905 - who discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis): Judaism was a Mycobacterium of social decomposition (July 1941)
  • 1913: Nobel Prize Richet (La Sélection Humaine)  elimination of disabled  scandal
  • 1935: A. Carrell (Nobel Prize 1912) – L’homme cet inconnu  world success till the fifties...
conclusion 3 thirties
Conclusion 3: Thirties
  • The eugenetic vision: the world can be seen as a human body, difficult to heal what makes that there’s one struggle, one revolt: one of a pathological order
  • The ennemy is no longer an antagonist as in the classic conflict. Now it’s an animal, a Mycobacterium. It’s something that should be eliminated by all means.