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الکتروفیزیولوژی قلب. رضا ارجمند زمستان 84. رئوس مطالب. ساختار قلب ساختار الکتریکی قلب بردار قلبی لیدهای ECG مسایل مطرح در ECG. سلولهای قلبی. Working muscle cells Specialized condition cells Pacemaker cells SA node. قلب. Transmembrane Potential. طبیعت الکتریکی ارتباط بین سلولی.

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slide1

الکتروفیزیولوژی قلب

رضا ارجمند

زمستان 84

slide2
رئوس مطالب
  • ساختار قلب
  • ساختار الکتریکی قلب
  • بردار قلبی
  • لیدهای ECG
  • مسایل مطرح در ECG
slide3
سلولهای قلبی
  • Working muscle cells
  • Specialized condition cells
  • Pacemaker cells
    • SA node
slide6
طبیعت الکتریکی ارتباط بین سلولی
  • ساختار Gap Junction
  • دلیل تجربی برای عملکرد مداوم در عضله قلبی
  • اطلاعات جدید در مورد مقاومت Gap junc.
slide8
دلیل تجربی برای عملکرد مداوم در عضله قلبی
  • ثابت زمانی ms 18 و ثابت مکانی 1mm
  • نتایج نشان مد دهند که فضای میان سلولی از نظر الکتریکی به هم متصلند.
gap junc1
اطلاعات جدید در مورد مقاومت Gap junc. (ادامه)

با قراردادن V2=0 داریم:

gap junc2
اطلاعات جدید در مورد مقاومت Gap junc. (ادامه)
  • نتایج:
    • با قراردادن V1 در -42 mV جریان رو به داخل سدیم متوقف و جریان رو به داخل کلسیم و رو به بیرون پتاسیم آغاز می گردد.
    • مقدار rn مستقل از V1 بوده و برابر 1.7 M می باشد.
    • این عدد با جابخایی سلول ها هم ثابت باقی می ماند.
slide14
عملکرد دیوار آزاد قلب
  • انتشار در هر جهت امکان دارد که انجام پذیرد.
  • در راستای سلول دارای بیشترین سرعت و هدایت می باشد
heart vector dipole
Heart Vector (Dipole)
  • انتگرال کل دو قطبی ها منجر به دو قطبی واحد قلب می گردد که بردار قلبی نیز نامیده می شود.
  • قلب از جهت الکتریکی به عنوان ژنراتور دو قطبی
  • H تابعی از زمان ولی J تابعی از زمان و مکان می باشد.
frontal plane leads
Frontal Plane Leads:
  • Standard (bipolar) Leads:
    • I: RA- to LA+
    • II: RA- to LL+
    • III: LA- to LL+
  • Augmented Vector (Unipolar) Leads
    • aVR: to RA+
    • aVL: to LA+
    • aVF: to LL+
slide25
مسایل موجود در ECG
  • اعوجاج فرکانسی
  • حلقه های زمین
  • آرتیفکتهای گذرا
  • تداخل ها
slide26

ونتیلاتور

Reza Arjmand

Winter 84

slide27
رئوس مطالب
  • مکانيزم تنفس طبيعي
  • انواع وسايل کمک تنفسي
slide28
مکانيسم تنفس طبيعي

دو روش عمده براي حرکي بالا پايين سينه

  • حرکت ديافراگم (شکل 1-C)
  • حرکت بالا و پايين دنده ها براي زياد و کم کردن قطر قدامي
slide30
انواع وسايل کمک تنفسي

وسايلي که هنگام مشکل تنفسي بکار مي برند:

  • کنترل کننده ها
  • کمک کننده ها
slide31
انواع روشهاي مکانيکي ونتيلاسيون
  • ونتيلاسيون با فشار منفي
  • ونتيلاسيون با فشار مثبت
slide32
مدار الکتريکي و مکانيکي تنفس

R مقاومت مسير تنفس و C معادل ظرفيت خازني است و ونتيلاتور برابر منبع ثابت جريان و پتانسيل مدل

مي گردد.

slide33
کميت هاي مورد نظر در هر ونتيلاتور
  • حجم دمي
  • حجم جاري
  • نسبت تنفس
  • فشار پر شدن ريه
  • ظرفيت هوايي مسير هوايي
  • مقاومت مسير هوايي
slide34
انواع مدهاي عملياتي ونتيلاتور ها
  • سيکل فشار PCV
  • سيکل حجميVCV
  • سيکل زماني TCV
  • سيکل فلوFCV
slide36

رادیولوژی و MRI

Arjmand Reza

Azar Ayaz Co.

Arjomand_reza@yahoo.com

radiology
Radiology
  • خاصيت يونيزه كنندگي
  • اشعه عبوري
  • در اثر بر خورد الكترونهاي پر شتاب و تغييرات انرژي آنها
slide38
مشخصات اشعه X
  • سختي اشعه (قابليت نفوذ متناسب با Kv)
  • چگالي تابش (متناسب با Ma)

Io=Ii exp(-ux)

U: بستگي به پراكندگي و جذب دارد

x: ضخامت

  • Spet size: قطر قسمت خروجي اشعه
slide39
عمده صدمات تيوب
  • صدمات آند: (گرماو حرارت)

* ذوب شدن سطح آند

* ترك خوردن سطح آند

* expose هاي متوالي با فاصله كم

  • صدمه به ياتاقان
  • صدمه به شيشه
slide40
مراحل آماده سازي متعارف
  • كليد On
  • Preheating كاتد
  • Ready گرفتن

3-1. افزايش جريان

3-2. شروع چرخش اند تا سرعت نامي

4. Expose

slide41
MRI
  • از طريق قرار دادن بدن در ميدان مغناطيسي
  • در بدن دو قطبي هاي نامنظم وجود دارند.
slide42
MRI
  • سرعت و جهت دوران اين دو قطبي ها تصادفي است.
  • اعمال يك ميدان بسيار قوي در راستاي همسو سازي
  • اعمال ميدان دوم (با زاويه مناسب)
  • قطع ميدان
  • و لستفاده از پالس هاي توليدي
slide43
اشكالات MRI
  • زمان بسيار زياد
  • عدم استفاده براي كسانيكه فلز در بدن دارند.
  • ميدان مغناطيسي بالا
monitoring pulse oximetry

Monitoring Pulse Oximetry

By Arjmand Reza

Azar Ayaz Co.

respiratory compromise
Respiratory Compromise
  • Signs and Symptoms
    • Dyspnea
    • Accessory muscle use
    • Inability to speak in full sentences
    • Adventitious breath sounds
    • Increased or decreased breathing rates
    • Shallow breathing
    • Flared nostrils or pursed lips
continued
continued
  • Retractions
  • Upright or tripod position
  • Unusual anatomy changes
hypoxemia
Hypoxemia
  • Decreased oxygen in arterial blood
    • Results in decreased cellular oxygenation
    • Anaerobic metabolism
    • Loss of cellular energy production
hypoxemia etiology
Hypoxemia Etiology
  • Inadequate External Respiration
    • Decreased on-loading of oxygen at pulmonary capillaries
  • Inadequate Oxygen Transport
    • Decreased oxygen carrying capacity
  • Inadequate Internal Respiration
    • Decreased off-loading of oxygen at cellular capillaries
external respiration
External Respiration
  • Exchange of gases between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
  • Oxygen diffuses from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower oxygen concentration
  • Oxygen must be available and must be able to diffuse across alveolar and capillary membranes
  • Oxygen must be able to saturate the hemoglobin
inadequate external respiration
Inadequate External Respiration
  • Decreased oxygen available in the environment
    • Smoke inhalation
    • Toxic gas inhalation
    • High altitudes
    • Enclosures without outside ventilation
  • Inadequate mechanical ventilation
    • Pain
      • Rib fractures
      • Pleurisy
continued1
continued
  • Traumatic injuries
    • Open pneumothorax
      • Loss of ability to change intrathoracic pressures
    • Crushing injuries of the neck and chest
      • Traumatic asphyxia
      • Crushing neck injuries
    • Tension pneumothorax
      • Increased intrathoracic pressures reducing ventilation
    • Hemothorax
      • Blood in thoracic cavity reducing lung expansion
    • Flail Chest
      • Loss of ability to change intrathoracic pressures
continued2
continued
  • Other conditions
    • Upper Airway Obstruction
      • Epiglottitis
      • Croup
      • Airway Edema-anaphylaxis
    • Lower Airway Obstructions
      • Asthma
      • Airway Edema from inhalation of toxic substances
continued3
continued
  • Hypoventilation
    • Muscle Paralysis
      • Spinal injuries
      • Paralytic drug for intubation
    • Drug Overdose
      • Respiratory depressants
    • Brain Stem Injuries
      • Damage to the respiratory center
continued4
continued
  • Inadequate oxygen diffusion
    • Pulmonary edema
      • Fluid between alveoli and capillaries inhibit diffusion
    • Pneumonia
      • Consolidation reduces surface area of respiratory membranes
      • Reduces the ventilation-perfusion ratio
    • COPD
      • Air trapping in alveoli
      • Loss of surface area of respiratory membranes
continued5
continued
  • Pulmonary emboli
    • Area of the lung is ventilated but hypoperfused
    • Loss of functional respiration membranes
oxygen transport
Oxygen Transport
  • Most of the oxygen in arterial blood is saturated on hemoglobin
  • Red blood cells must be adequate in number and have adequate hemoglobin
  • Sufficient circulation is necessary to transport oxygen to the cellular level
inadequate oxygen transport
Inadequate Oxygen Transport
  • Anemia
    • Reduces red blood cells reduce oxygen carrying capacity
    • Inadequate hemoglobin results in the loss of oxygen saturation
  • Poisoning
    • Carbon monoxide on-loads on the hemoglobin more readily preventing oxygen saturation and oxygen carrying capacity
  • Shock
    • Low blood pressures result in inadequate oxygen carrying capacity
internal respiration
Internal Respiration
  • Exchange of gases from the systemic capillaries to the tissue cells
  • Oxygen must be able to off-load the hemoglobin
  • Oxygen moves from a area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration of oxygen
inadequate internal respiration
Inadequate Internal Respiration
  • Shock
    • Oxygen is not available due to massive peripheral vasoconstriction or micro-emboli
  • Cellular environment is not conducive to off-loading oxygen
    • Acid Base Imbalance
    • Lower than normal temperature
  • Poisoning
    • CO will reduce the oxygen available at the cellular level
signs and symptoms of hypoxemia
Signs and Symptoms of Hypoxemia
  • Restlessness
  • Altered or deteriorating mental status
  • Increased or decreased pulse rates
  • Increased or decrease respiratory rates
  • Decreased oxygen oximetry readings
  • Cyanosis (late sign)
pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
  • Oxygen is exchanged by diffusion from higher concentrations to lower concentrations
  • Most of the oxygen in the arterial blood is carried bound to hemoglobin
    • 97% of total oxygen is normally bound to hemoglobin
    • 3% of total oxygen is dissolved in the plasma
oxygen saturation
Oxygen Saturation
  • Percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen
  • Normal SpO2 is 95-98%
  • Suspect cellular perfusion compromise if less than 95% SpO2
    • Insure adequate airway
    • Provide supplemental oxygen
    • Monitor carefully for further changes and intervene appropriately
continued6
continued
  • Suspect severe cellular perfusion compromise when SpO2 is less than 90%
    • Insure airway and provide positive ventilations if necessary
    • Administer high flow oxygen
    • Head injured patients should never drop below 90% SpO2
spo2 and pao2
SpO2 and PaO2
  • SpO2 indicates the oxygen bound to hemoglobin
    • Closely corresponds to SaO2 measured in laboratory tests
    • SpO2 indicates the saturation was obtained with non-invasive oximetry
  • PaO2 indicates the oxygen dissolved in the plasma
    • Measured in ABGs
continued7
continued
  • Normal PaO2 is 80-100 mmHg
    • Normally
      • 80-100 mm Hg corresponds to 95-100% SpO2
      • 60 mm Hg corresponds to 90% SpO2
      • 40 mm Hg corresponds to 75% SpO2
technology
Technology
  • The pulse oximeter has Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that produce red and infrared light
  • LEDs and the detector are on opposite sides of the sensor
  • Sensor must be place so light passes through a capillary bed
    • Requires physiological pulsatile waves to measure saturation
    • Requires a pulse or a pulse wave (Adequate CPR)
continued8
continued
  • Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood absorb different light sources
    • Oxyhemoglobin absorbs more infrared light
    • Reduced hemoglobin absorbs more red light
    • Pulse oximetry reveals arterial saturation my measuring the difference.
patient assessment
Patient Assessment
  • Patient assessment should include all components
    • Scene Size-up
    • Initial Assessment
    • Rapid Trauma Assessment or Focused Physical Exam
    • Focused History
    • Vital Signs
    • Detailed Assessment
    • Ongoing Assessment
pulse oximetry monitoring
Pulse Oximetry Monitoring
  • Pulse oximetry monitoring is NOT intended to replace any part of the patient assessment
    • Pulse oximetry is a useful adjunct in assessing the patient’s oxygenation and monitoring treatment interventions
  • Initiate pulse oximetry immediately prior to or concurrently with oxygen administration
continuous monitoring
Continuous Monitoring
  • Monitor current oxygenation status and response to oxygen therapy
  • Monitor response to nebulized treatments
  • Monitor patient following intubation
  • Monitor patient following positioning patients for stabilization and transport
  • Decreased circulating oxygen in the blood may occur rapidly without immediate clinical signs and symptoms
pediatrics
Pediatrics
  • Use appropriate sized sensors
    • Adult sensors may be used on arms or feet
  • Active movement may cause erroneous readings
    • Pulse rate on the oximeter must coincide with palpated pulse
  • Poor perfusion will cause erroneous readings
    • Treat patient according to clinical status when in doubt
    • Pulse oximetry is useless in pediatric cardiac arrest
conditions affecting accuracy
Conditions Affecting Accuracy
  • Patient conditions
    • Carboxyhemoglobin
    • Anemia
    • Hypovolemia/Hypotension
    • Hypothermia
patient environments
Patient Environments
  • Ambient Light
  • Excessive Motion
ambient lighting
Ambient Lighting
  • Any external light exposure to capillary bed where sampling is occurring may result in an erroneous reading
  • Most sensors are designed to prevent light from passing through the shell
    • Shielding the sensor by covering the extremity is acceptable
excessive motion
Excessive Motion
  • New technology filters out most motion artifact
  • Always compare the palpable pulse rate with the pulse rate indicated on the pulse oximetry
    • If they do not coincide, reading must be considered inaccurate
other concerns
Other Concerns
  • Fingernail polish and pressed on nails
    • Most commonly use nails and fingernail polish will not affect pulse oximetry accuracy
    • Some shades of blue, black and green may affect accuracy (remove with acetone pad)
    • Metallic flaked polish should be removed with acetone pad
    • The sensor may be placed on the ear if reading is affected
continued9
continued
  • Skin pigmentation
    • Apply sensor to the fingertips of darkly pigmented patients.
interpreting pulse oximetry
Interpreting Pulse Oximetry
  • Assess and treat the PATIENT not the oximeter!
    • Use oximetry as an adjunct to patient assessment and treatment evaluation

NEVER withhold oxygen if the patient ahs signs or symptoms of hypoxia or hypoxemia irregardless of oximetry readings!

continued10
continued
  • Pulse oximetry measures oxygenation not ventilation
    • Pulse oximetry does NOT indicate the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood!
documentation
Documentation
  • Pulse oximetry is usually documented as SpO2
    • Distinguishes non-invasive pulse oximetry from SaO2 determined by laboratory testing
  • Document oximetry readings as frequently as other vital signs
  • When oximetry reading is obtained before oxygen administration, designate the reading as “room air”
continued11
continued
  • When oxygen administration is changed, document the evaluation of pulse oximetry
  • When treatments provided could potentially affect respiration or ventilation, document pulse oximetry
    • Spinal immobilization
    • Shock position
    • Fluid administration
pco 2 electrode
pCO2 Electrode

The measurement of pCO2 is based on its linear relationship with pH over the range of 10 to 90 mm Hg.

The dissociation constant is given by

Taking logarithms

pH = log[HCO3-] – log k – log a – log pCO2

po 2 electrode
pO2 electrode

The pO2 electrode consists of a platinum cathode and a Ag/AgCl reference electrode.

optical biosensors

LED

IR light

Finger

Photodetector

Absorption

oxyhemoglobin

Optical Biosensors

deoxyhemoglobin

Sensing Principle

They link changes in light intensity to changes in mass or concentration, hence, fluorescent or colorimetric molecules must be present.

Wavelength

600 – 900 nm

Infrared Spectroscopy

Various principles and methods are used :

Optical fibres, surface plasmon resonance,Absorbance, Luminescence

fiber optic biosensor

Light transmitter

Receiver/reflected light

Balloon

Thermistor

Fiber Optic Biosensor

Intraventricular

Fiber optic catheter

absorption fluorescence
Absorption/Fluorescence

Different dyes show peaks of different values at different concentrations when the absorbance or excitation is plotted against wavelength.

Phenol Red is a pH sensitive reversible dye whose relative absorbance (indicated by ratio of green and red light transmitted) is used to measure pH.

HPTS is an irreversible fluorescent dye used to measure pH.

Similarly, there are fluorescent dyes which can be used to measure O2 and CO2 levels.

pulse oximetry
Pulse Oximetry

The pulse oximeter is a spectrophotometric device that detects and calculates the differential absorption of light by oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin to get sO2. A light source and a photodetector are contained within an ear or finger probe for easy application.

Two wavelengths of monochromatic light -- red (660 nm) and infrared (940 nm) -- are used to gauge the presence of oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin in blood. With each pulse beat the device interprets the ratio of the pulse-added red absorbance to the pulse-added infrared absorbance. The calculation requires previously determined calibration curves that relate transcutaneous light absorption to sO2.

summary
Summary

As with all monitoring devices, the interpretation of information and response to that interpretation is the responsibility of a properly trained technician!

references
References

Bledsoe, B. et al. (2003). Essentials of paramedic care. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Halstead, D., Progress in pulse oximetry—a powerful tool for EMS providers. JEMS, 2001: 55-66.

Henry, M., Stapleton, E. (1997). EMT prehospital care (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Limmer, D., et al. (2001) Emergency Care (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Porter, R., et al: The fifth vital sign. Emergency, 1991 22(3): 127-130.

Sanders, M., (2001). Paramedic textbook (rev. 2nd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

Shade, B., et al. (2002). EMT intermediate textbook (2nd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

Cason, D., Pons, P. (1997) Paramedic field care: a complaint approach. St. Louis: Mosby.

endoscopy

Endoscopy

Arjmand Reza

Biomedical Engineering

Azar ayaz Co. (Ltd)

slide94

Brief History of Fiber Optics

  • Lanterns for communications (Paul Revere)
  • Lamps used by Navy personnel to communicate from ship to ship or shore using Morse code.
  • First optical telegraph (late part of the 18th century, the French). Towers stretching 230 km relayed signals from one to the next using movable signal arms, enabling message transmission in 15 minutes. A similar system was operational between Boston and Martha’s Vineyards. (Optical telegraph replaced by electrical telegraphs later).
slide95

Spout

Light

Source

Light confined inside the

“water fiber”

Figure

6.1 Illustration of John Tyndall’s experiment with a “water” fiber.

Brief History of Fiber Optics (continued)

slide96

Brief History of Fiber Optics (continued)

  • Alexander Graham Bell invented the photo phone in the later part of the 19th century.
  • Use of fibers to look inside a human body started over fifty years ago.
  • The term “fiber optic” coined by Narinder Kapany in 1956. Glass rod with a glass coating was invented and it became the first optical fiber.
  • The invention of laser in the 1960s evoked further interest in the field of communications. Over the next few decades, losses in fiber optic cables were reduced from ca. 20 dB/km in 1966, to ca. 0.2 dB/km or less these days.
  • In the 1970’s, the military replaced conventional communication methods with fiber optics due to the light weight offered by fiber cables. Communication companies started replacing existing cabling with fiber optic systems in the 1970s and 1980s.
  • In the 1990s computer manufacturing companies started using fiber optic systems for rapid communications transfer with rates of up to 40 billion bytes per second by the late 1990s.
slide97

Outer Jacket

Kevlar®

Jacket

Buffer coat

Cladding

Core

Figure

6.2 Illustration of the elements of a fi

ber optic cable.

Elements of a Fiber Optics Cable for Communications

introduction to endoscopy
Introduction to Endoscopy
  • It is a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure used to evaluate the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a small scope in the body, often but not necessarily through a natural body opening. Through the scope, one is able to see lesions.
  • An instrument may not only provide an image but also enable taking small biopsies and retrieve foreign objects. Endoscopy is the vehicle for minimally invasive surgery.
  • Many endoscopic procedures are relatively painless and only associated with mild discomfort, though patients are sedated for most procedures. Complications are rare but may include perforation of the organ under inspection with the endoscope or biopsy instrument. If this occurs, surgery may be required to repair the injury.
components
Components
  • Uses a light delivery system to illuminate the organ under inspection. Nowadays the light source is outside the body and the light is typically directed via an opticalfiber system.
  • Transmits the image through a lens system, and in flexible systems a fiberscope to the viewer.
  • In recent years has a camera, called a capsule camera or video pill at the distal end of the optical system to project findings on a video system.
  • Operative endoscopes have an additional channel to allow entry of instruments to biopsy or operate.
applications
Applications
  • The gastrointestinal tract:
    • esophagus, stomach and duodenum (esophagogastroduodenoscopy)
    • colon (colonoscopy), the endoscope is used to examine the colon.
      • sigmoid colon: (proctosigmoidoscopy)
    • in an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), an endoscope is used to introduce radiographic contrast medium into the bile ducts so they can be visualized on x-ray.
  • The respiratory tract
    • The nose (rhinoscopy)
    • The lower respiratory tract (bronchoscopy)
  • The urinary tract (cystoscopy)
applications1
Applications
  • The female reproductive system
    • The uterus (hysteroscopy)
    • The Fallopian tubes (Falloscopy)
  • Normally closed body cavities (through a small incision):
    • The abdominal or pelvic cavity (laparoscopy)
    • The interior of a joint (arthroscopy)
    • Organs of the chest (thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy)
  • During pregnancy
    • The amnion (amnioscopy)
    • The fetus (fetoscopy)
history of the endoscope
History of the Endoscope
  • The first endoscope developed in 1806 by Philip Bozzini with his introduction of a "Lichtleiter" (light conductor) "for the examinations of the canals and cavities of the human body". However, the Vienna Medical Society disapproved such curiosity.
  • Endoscope was first introduced into a human in 1853. The use of electric light was a major step to improve endoscopy, first such light was external, then smaller bulbs became available, making internal light possible, for instance in a hysteroscope by David in 1908.
  • Jacobeus has been given credit for early endoscopic explorations of the abdomen and the thorax with "laparoscopy" (1912) and "thoracoscopy" (1910).
  • Laparoscopy was used in the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder disease was by the German Heinz Kalk in the 1930s. Hope reported in 1937 on the use of laparoscopy to diagnose ectopic pregnancy.
  • In 1944 Raoul Palmer placed his patients in the Trendelenburg position after gaseous distention of the abdomen and thus was able to reliably perform gynecologic laparoscopy.
slide103
For diagnostic endoscopy Basil Hirschowitz invented a superior glass fiber for flexible endoscopes. The technology resulted in not only the first useful medical endoscope, but the invention revolutionized other endoscopic uses and led to practical fiber optics.
  • Surgery and examination began in the late 1970s and then only with young and 'healthy' patients.
  • By 1980 laparoscopy training was required by gynecologists to perform tubal ligation procedures and diagnostic evaluations of the pelvis.
  • The first laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 1984 and the first video-laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1987.
  • During the 1990s laparoscopic surgery was extended to the appendix, spleen, colon, stomach, kidney, and liver.
recent developments
Recent developments
  • With the application of robotic systems, telesurgery was introduced as the surgeon could operate from a site physically removed from the patient. The first transatlantic surgery has been called the Lindbergh Operation.
  • In 2001Given Imaging introduced the first pill-sized endoscopic capsule with a camera. Over the following years other manufacturers introduced new models with additional improvements.
  • As of 2004, 1 cm x 2 cm endoscopic capsules can capture 0.4 megapixel video at up to 30 frames/ second. They give doctors rotational control over the capsule to adjust the camera direction, can take tissue samples and can deliver medications to patient's body. The capsules cost upwards from $120 and can be powered by battery or wireless transmission.
references1
References
  • S. Vasan, Basics of Photonics and Optics, Trafford Publishing, 2004
  • Wikipedia.org website
  • Olympus website.