slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 376 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 15. Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations. “Correctional Facilities” aka “Incarceration Facilities”. Community residential centers Jails Reformatories Penal institutions Houses of corrections Juvenile and adult schools, ranches, camps, homes Halfway houses.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations' - takara


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 15

Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations

slide2

“Correctional Facilities” aka “Incarceration Facilities”

  • Community residential centers
  • Jails
  • Reformatories
  • Penal institutions
  • Houses of corrections
  • Juvenile and adult schools, ranches, camps, homes
  • Halfway houses
slide3

English Gaols & Hulks

  • Gaol could be any secure place
  • Hulks were abandoned ships
  • Prisoners were mixed together:
    • Adult & juvenile / male & female
    • Hardened & first time offenders
  • No state responsibility for health, safety & welfare
  • Survival of the fittest
slide4

The Pennsylvania System and William Penn

  • New, more humane system introduced, forbidding torture
  • Imprisonment at hard labor & moderate flogging with restitution
  • All lands and goods were to be forfeited
  • Ordered houses of corrections to be built
slide5

The Pennsylvania System

  • Single inmate to a cell
  • Cells designed as miniature prisons
  • Constant solitary confinement
  • The Eastern State Penitentiary (in Philadelphia) became the most expensive and most copied building of its time.
slide6

The Pennsylvania System (cont.)

  • Modestly appointed:
    • Bed
    • Table
    • Chair
    • Bucket
    • Bible
  • A place to reflect on wrong doings and improve one’s moral character (“to get right with God”)
slide7

The Auburn System: An Alternative to the Pennsylvania System

  • Sometimes called the tier or congregate system
  • Based on fear of punishment & silent confinement
  • Congregate work conditions
  • Separate & silent conditions at night
  • Enforced silence was the key to discipline
slide8

Prison Reform

  • Zebulon Brockway begins reforms at Elmira (NY) Reformatory
    • Reform measures include education, vocational training, military-like training, and humanitarianism
  • Parole brought to America
slide9

Prison Industries

  • Contract System
  • Convict Lease System
slide10

Demise of Prison Industries

  • Organized labor unions oppose forced labor (unfair competition)
  • Sumners-Ashurst Act (1940): federal offense to transport interstate commerce goods made in prison for private use
slide11

Failure of Reform Efforts

  • The modern era has been a period of change and turmoil in the nation’s correctional system
  • Why reform efforts have failed:
    • Failure of the medical model to rehabilitate coupled with high recidivism rates
    • Increase in prison violence
    • Increase in prison costs
slide12

Who are the Most Common Kinds of Jail Inmates?

  • Young, single, male
  • Undereducated
  • Minorities
  • Low income
  • Single parent family
  • Drug/alcohol abuse
  • Property crimes
slide13

Women in Jail

  • Increase of 6% annually since 1990
  • Substance abuse common
  • Victims of child abuse
slide14

Jail Conditions

  • Operated under concept of custodial convenience
  • Understaffed, underpaid
  • Lack of basic programs and services
  • Suicides common
slide15

New Generation Jails

  • To relieve overcrowding and improve effectiveness, a jail-building boom has been underway. Modern designs are being used to improve effectiveness.
  • New generation jails allow for either direct or indirect continuous observation of residents.
slide16

Types of Prisons

  • As of 2003, there were more than 1,600 public and private adult correctional facilities housing state prisoners.
  • There are 84 federal facilities and 26 private facilities housing federal inmates.
  • The number of prison institutions has increased 14% since 1995.
slide17

State Prison Organization: Maximum Security Prisons

  • Fortresses
  • Cells/blocks/wings
  • Standard uniform and dress codes
  • Everything based on security (lock psychosis)
slide18

State Prison Organization: Medium Security Prisons

  • Similar appearance to maximum security
  • Security is less intense
  • More privileges
  • More treatment effort
slide19

State Prison Organization: Minimum Security Prisons

  • No armed guards or walls
  • House most trustworthy & least violent offenders
  • Dormitory style housing or small rooms
  • Often farms or ranches
slide20

State Prison Organization: Ultra-Maximum Security Prisons

  • House most dangerous, predatory criminals
  • Extra-tight security and isolated conditions are common
  • All potential weapons removed, e.g., mirrors, toilet seat, soap dishes, etc.
  • Some claim violations of United Nations standards for the treatment of inmates
slide21

Prison Inmates Personal Characteristics

  • Young
  • Single
  • Poorly educated
  • Disproportionately male
  • Disproportionately minority group member
slide22

Why Have Prison Populations Grown?

  • Public demand for punitive punishment
  • Mandatory & determinate sentencing
  • More drug and violent crimes
  • Increased use of incarceration by judges
  • Lack of employment opportunities slow the rate of prisoners released on parole
slide23

Prison Overcrowding

  • 37 states operating under court orders
  • State prisons are over 100% capacity
  • Some responses:
    • Double/triple bunking
    • Tents & military bases
    • River barges
    • Use of local jails
slide24

Shock Incarceration (aka Boot Camp)

  • Typical inmate is a youthful, first time offender convicted of a property crime
  • Often used when drug use was a factor
  • Uses a military regime discipline and physical fitness
slide25

Private Prisons

  • Private company builds prison and contracts to run it
  • In some cases, the prison and programs are leased to the state
  • In other cases, specific service program contracts are made
  • More than 264 private facilities operate under federal or state authority
    • The number of inmates in private facilities has risen 459% since June 1995
slide26

Problems with Private Prisons

  • Biased evaluations re: effectiveness
  • Cut corners to save costs
  • Hard core prisoners not accepted for state care
  • Maintenance of liability
  • Loss of state jobs
  • Difficult to control quality
  • Moral considerations
slide27

Going to Prison During Your Lifetime

  • The prison boom means that a significant portion of American citizens will one day be behind bars. One in 37 adults living in the U.S. on December 31, 2001 had been confined in prison at some time during his or her life.
  • Between growth in the population and increases in life expectancy, the number of current or former inmates increased by 3.8 million between 1974 - 2002.
  • There were racially significant differences in the likelihood of going to prison.
slide28

Explaining Prison Population Trends

  • Politicians respond to “get tough” demands from certain segments of the public
    • Public concern increases over drug and violent crime
  • Mandatory sentencing laws increase eligibility for incarceration and limit the availability for early release via parole
  • Increased number of ex-inmates who have failed on community release