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Chapter 14: . Network Design and Facility Location. The Need for Long-Range Planning. In the short run, the logistics managers must work with the current facility locations.

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chapter 14

Chapter 14:

Network Design and Facility Location

the need for long range planning
The Need for Long-Range Planning
  • In the short run, the logistics managers must work with the current facility locations.
  • However, in the long run, the firm’s facility locations are considered variable, and are subject to change.
  • Facilities design and location have become strategically important in today’s highly competitive business environment.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

the strategic importance of logistics network design
The Strategic Importance of Logistics Network Design
  • Considering the rate at which the business environment is changing, logistics facilities are under pressure to keep current.
  • In many companies, change has happened recently or is scheduled for the near future.
  • With capital being both scarce and expensive, facilities decisions become more important.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

the strategic importance of logistics network design4
The Strategic Importance of Logistics Network Design
  • Critical variables in network design:
    • Changing Customer Service Requirements
    • Shifting Locations of Customer and/or Supply Markets
    • Change in Corporate Ownership
    • Cost Pressures
    • Competitive Capabilities
    • Corporate Organizational Change

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

the strategic importance of logistics network design changing customer service requirements
The Strategic Importance of Logistics Network Design: Changing Customer Service Requirements
  • A customer’s business has changed and the company may need to change some aspect(s) of its service to those customers.
  • Some customers will be looking for new supply chain partners and the company needs to be responsive to these potential new business partners.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

slide6
The Strategic Importance of Logistics Network Design: Shifting Locations of Customer and/or Supply Markets
  • Geographic locations of markets often shift over time and the company needs to position its logistics network to be responsive to these shifts.
  • Similarly, global competition often results in geographic shifts for not only new customers, but also new markets.
  • Companies tuned to these changes have a head start in establishing new business.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

the strategic importance of logistics network design change in corporate ownership
The Strategic Importance of Logistics Network Design: Change in Corporate Ownership
  • Mergers, consolidations and divestiture may mean new logistics and market patterns for the surviving entity.
  • Once again, companies tuned to these changes have a head start in establishing new business.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

the strategic importance of logistics network design cost pressures
The Strategic Importance of Logistics Network Design: Cost Pressures
  • As competition increases, firms must seek ways to continue growth.
  • One such way is to find areas where the costs of key business processes can be reduced.
  • Often the pressure to reduce costs can be applied to areas for which the logistics department has responsibility.
  • Inventory and transportation can be such sources.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

the strategic importance of logistics network design competitive capabilities
The Strategic Importance of Logistics Network Design: Competitive Capabilities
  • Obsolete facilities signal the company that a logistics examination is necessary.
  • Companies that have not analyzed the changes in their environment are risking both profitability and solvency.
  • Many firms locate distribution facilities near hub operations of FedEx, UPS, Airborne, Emery and DHL so that access to time-critical, express transportation services is facilitated.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

the strategic importance of logistics network design corporate organizational change
The Strategic Importance of Logistics Network Design: Corporate Organizational Change
  • Downsizing and re-engineering cause the firm to reexamine its logistics division for potential savings.
  • Many logistics facilities have faced various levels of change because of re-engineering efforts in the organization.
  • Logistics functions can be provided by third party vendors (3PLs) where the firm cannot accommodate the necessary changes.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

logistics network design
Logistics Network Design
  • Figure 14-1 on the next slide identifies six major steps associated with the process of Logistics Network Design.
  • Step 1: Define the Logistics Network design Process
  • Form a design team
    • Establish design parameters and objectives
    • Establish availability of resources and potential involvement of 3PLs.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

figure 14 1 key steps in the logistics network design process
Figure 14 – 1 Key Steps in the Logistics Network Design Process

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

logistics network design13
Logistics Network Design
  • Step 2: Perform a Logistics Audit
    • Forces a comprehensive perspective
    • Develops essential information
  • Step 3: Examine the Logistics Network Alternatives
    • Use modeling to provide additional insights
    • Develop preliminary designs
    • Test model for sensitivity to key variables

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

figure 14 2 key steps in a logistics audit
Figure 14-2 Key Steps in a Logistics Audit

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

logistics network design15
Logistics Network Design
  • Step 4: Conduct a Facility Location Analysis
    • Analyze attributes of candidate sites
    • Apply screening to reduce alternative sites
  • Step 5: Make Decisions regarding Network and Facility Location
    • Evaluate sites for consistency with design criteria.
    • Confirm types of change needed

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

logistics network design16
Logistics Network Design
  • Step 6: Develop an Implementation Plan
    • Plan serves as a road map in moving from current system to the desired logistics network.
    • Firm must commit funds to implement the changes recommended by the re-engineering process.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

major locational determinants
Major Locational Determinants
  • Major Locational Determinants are summarized in Table 14-1.
  • These determinants are subcategorized into regional and site specific factors.
  • Take a minute and review these factors now.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

table 14 1 major locational determinants
Table 14-1Major Locational Determinants

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

major locational determinants current trends governing site selection
Major Locational Determinants: Current Trends Governing Site Selection
  • Strategic positioning of inventories, with faster moving items located at “market-facing” logistics facilities, and slower moving items at national or regional sites.
  • Direct plant-to-customer shipments which can reduce or eliminate the need for company-owned supply or distribution facilities.
  • Growing need and use of “cross-docking” facilities.
  • Use of third party logistics companies which negate the need for the firm to maintain or establish its own distribution facilities.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

relevance of delivered costs laid down costs
RELEVANCE OF DELIVERED COSTS/LAID DOWN COSTS
  • Location can influence “delivered costs” or “laid down costs” (production costs + transportation costs + other logistics and non-logistics costs)
  • Innovative approaches may be used to compensate for weakness in a component
  • e.g., the market boundary determination example (discussed in class)

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

modeling approaches optimization models
Modeling Approaches: Optimization Models
  • Based on precise mathematical procedures guaranteed to find the “best” solution from among a number of feasible solutions.
  • Key issues are listed in Figure 14-3.
  • One approach is Linear Programming (LP).
    • Useful in linking facilities in a network.
    • Defines optimum distribution patterns.
    • Modern computers facilitate LP modeling.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

figure 14 4 supply chain scenario for network analysis
Figure 14-4 Supply Chain Scenario for Network Analysis

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

modeling approaches simulation models
Modeling Approaches: Simulation Models
  • Based on developing a model of a real system and conducting experiments with this model.
  • In location theory, a firm can test the effect of various locations on costs and profitability.
  • Does not guarantee an optimum solution but evaluates through the iterative process.
  • Simulations are either static or dynamic depending upon how whether they incorporate data from each run into the next run.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

modeling approaches heuristic models
Modeling Approaches: Heuristic Models
  • Based upon developing a model that can provide a good approximation to the least-cost location in a complex decision problem.
  • Can reduce a problem to a manageable size.
  • This approach can be as sophisticated as mathematical optimization approaches.
  • The “Grid Technique” is an example of a heuristic approach and will be demonstrated in the next few slides.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

example of a heuristic modeling approach the grid technique
Example of a Heuristic Modeling Approach: The Grid Technique
  • The Grid Technique attempts to locate a fixed facility such that the location represents the least-cost center for moving inbound materials and outbound product within a geographic grid.
  • It finds the ton-mile center of mass; that is, the geographic point where transportation costs are minimized (as discussed in class)
  • This simple approach works where all transportation rates are the same.
  • However, we know that freight rates for raw materials are generally lower than those for finished goods.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

example of a heuristic modeling approach the grid technique26
Example of a Heuristic Modeling Approach: The Grid Technique
  • When we use different freight rates, the grid model will tend to pull the location of our fixed facility toward the higher rated areas.
  • Thus, the location of a production plant will tend to be nearer the market, reducing the overall transportation of the higher rated finished goods in favor of increasing transportation of lower rated raw materials.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

example of a heuristic modeling approach the grid technique27
Example of a Heuristic Modeling Approach: The Grid Technique
  • In the example, the plant’s least-cost center is 655 in the horizontal direction, and 826 in the vertical direction.
  • Both distances are measured from the grid’s zero point.
  • The least-cost center is in southwestern Ohio or northern West Virginia in the Wheeling-Parkersburg area.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

example of a heuristic modeling approach the grid technique28
Example of a Heuristic Modeling Approach: The Grid Technique
  • Advantages
    • Simple to use
    • Provides a starting point for further analysis
    • Can accommodate “what if” questions
  • Limitations
    • Static approach
    • Linear rates
    • No consideration of topography
    • Does not consider direction of movement

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

transportation pragmatics
Transportation Pragmatics
  • Tapering rates
    • Rates increase with distance, but not in direct proportion to distance.
    • Results from the carriers ability to spread certain fixed costs over a greater number of miles.
    • Tends to pull the location to either the source or market, but not in between.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

table 14 5 locational effects of tapering rates with constant rate assumption
Table 14-5 Locational Effects of Tapering Rates with Constant Rate Assumption

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

figure 14 7 locational effects of tapering rates with constant rate assumption
Figure 14-7Locational Effects of Tapering Rates with Constant Rate Assumption

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

table 14 6 locational effects of tapering rates without constant rate assumption
Table 14-6 Locational Effects of Tapering Rates without Constant Rate Assumption

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

figure 14 8 locational effects of tapering rates without constant rate assumption
Figure 14-8Locational Effects of Tapering Rates without Constant Rate Assumption

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

transportation pragmatics34
Transportation Pragmatics
  • Blanket rates
    • Rates do not increase with distance, but remains the same from one origin to any destination in the blanket area.
    • Results from the carriers desire to maintain competitive prices for a product in a given area.
    • Is a mutation of the basic rate-distance relationship.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

transportation pragmatics35
Transportation Pragmatics
  • Commercial Zones
    • A specific blanket area that includes a municipality and the surrounding area.
    • Impact is at end of location process when a company picks a specific site.
  • Foreign Trade Zones
    • Geographic zone into which importers can enter a product and hold it without paying duties, only paying when product enters U.S. customs territory.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.

transportation pragmatics36
Transportation Pragmatics
  • Transit Privileges
    • Permits a shipper to stop a shipment in transit and perform some function that physically changes the product’s characteristics. (e.g., wheat to flour)
    • This can make intermediate locations optimum rather than focus only on sources and markets.

Management of Business Logistics, 7th Ed.