A New Nation 1789-1800. Brought about a new Constitution Moving forward: The task ahead of Washington and Congress was to build a government around the ideas of the Constitution. Philadelphia Convention. Establish federal laws, courts, & law enforcement officers
Solve financial problems, establish a federal treasury, & a method for collecting taxesKey Concerns
George Washington was elected the first U.S. President & served two terms
Was their a term limit established by the U.S. Constitution at this time?
John Adams became Vice PresidentWashington
What U.S. President was elected to the most terms prior to this Amendment?President
Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
After this Presidential Inaugurations were held in March
Amendment 20 (1933), also known as the “Lame Duck” Amendment changed Presidential Inaugurations to January 20thInauguration
Why may the framers of the Constitution have specified a longer lame duck period?Questions To Consider
Political office holder reaching the end of their term either because of a lack of desire to run again, a loss in re-election, term limits, or the termination of their office. They often have less political power at this time.
Hint: think technology and transportation
Transportation and Technology were less advanced causing information to travel slower
Washington wanted men who were “disposed to measure matters on a continental scale” rather than their home states to head the departments.
What does this quote mean?Selecting leaders
-Disposition-inclination or a tendency
-Washington wanted men who acted in interest of the country rather than their own individual state.
President appoints Supreme Court justices if one retires or is removed from office
How many Supreme Court justices are their today?Today
-Drafted the Bill of Rights
-States ratified ten of twelve
Which two rights are the only ones unique to the American Bill of Rights, and why do you think that is?
The American revolution cost the newly independent U.S. government about 50 million dollars
Hamilton suggested taxing imports to raise money & protect American businesses from unfair foreign competition
Hamilton argued that the elastic clause (AKA necessary and proper clause, art.1 sect.8 ) gave Congress this power
Two-party system-two main political parties of today (Democrats and Republicans)
Can we name some of today’s political parties?The Rise of Political Parties
Democratic, Republican, Boston Tea Party, Libertarian, Prohibition Party, many others
In 1789, the French people revolted against their King, England attacked France, and France asked for assistance from the United States.
What is Britain concerned about?France vs. England
At this time, Britain and France were both monarchs and the British Crown hoped to prevent any future rebellions within their own borders.
North (Hamilton) favored England because both were industrial and had strong economic ties
South (Jefferson and Madison) favored France because both were agricultural, and also to repay the help they lent during the American Revolution (Yorktown)
-Impartial to Britain and France
Why would someone (in this case Washington) choose to be neutral?Neutrality
Both Britain and France traded with the United States (economic interests)
Congress almost declared war because of British aggression at sea and at home (“inciting Native Americans”)
Britain at war with France but knew U.S. relied on Britain for trade
In an effort to avoid war Washington sent John Jay to negotiate with BritainJay’s treaty (Background)
Washington refused to serve a third term, retired at Mount Vernon, and warned against foreign alliances & political parties in the future.
3 French agents representing Charles Maurice de Talleyrand requested bribe($250,000) to initiate talks and a 12million dollar loan
Americans called for war
Congress banned trade with France
Navy began capturing French ships“XYZ” Affair
President John Adams won first contested election(in U.S. Hist) against Thomas Jefferson
France began seizing American Ships
U.S. & France began Quasi-War (undeclared)Quasi-War
-Napoleon seized power in France and quickly reached an agreement with Adams.
- Signed Convention of 1800
Purpose- Four laws passed by a Federalist (dominated) Congress to reduce the power of the Democratic-Republicans
Democratic-Republicans responded with the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
Adams (Federalist)- Alien and Sedition Acts angered too many Americans
With a tie vote in the Electoral College, the House of Representatives with help from Alexander Hamilton(Federalist), chose Jefferson over Burr on the thirty-sixth ballot
12th amendment-vote pres and vice pres same ballot , they must be from different statesElection of 1800
What made the election of 1800 so significant in American political history?
The first contested election in U.S. history went through a peaceful transition of power: the losing party accepted the choice of the people despite often strongly opposing ideologies (views) between the Democratic-Republicans and Federalists.