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Development of a Rn removal system for future Xe -based neutrino detectors using resonant ionization. Hiroyuki Sekiya Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo Yoshihiro Iwata, Chikara Ito Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

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development of a rn removal system for future xe based neutrino detectors using resonant ionization
Development of a Rn removal system for future Xe-based neutrino detectors using resonant ionization

Hiroyuki Sekiya Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo

Yoshihiro Iwata, Chikara ItoJapan Atomic Energy Agency

Preface:Radon is one of the major background sources in low energy neutrinoexperiments. Accordingly it is essential to suppress radon events in future large-scalexenon detectors aiming for neutrino-less double beta decay and pp solar neutrino measurements. Although the removal of radon from air using adsorption on activatedcharcoal is well established,because its chemical properties are similar to those of radon thistechnique cannot be used with xenon; Xenon itself adsorbs to charcoal and thereby deteriorates its radonabsorption efficacy. So we propose a new radon removal method.

SK

3. Development of Lasers

  • Xe-based neutrino detector
                  • -beyond dark matter search

4 wave-mixing for making 178.6nm or 145.2nm

  • 136Xe 2nbb spectrum
  • solar neutrino spectra in Xe
  • Wavelength transformation in Kr gas cell

10-4

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

10-9

10-10

10-3

10-4

10-5

10-6

178.6 nm or

145.2 nm

N.B.136Xe can be reduced

for Solar n

ne+ e

→ ne+ e

262.4nmor

396.8nm

counts/keV/day/kg

counts/keV/day/kg

136Xe

T1/2= 2.4 x 1021 year

slit

212.6 nm

MgF2

prism

pp

7Be

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

MeV

0.01 0.1 1 10

MeV

Y. Suzuki

hep-ph/0008296

XMASS as an example

Future XMASS-II

XMASS-I

24ton

10ton fiducial

Ø 2.5m

  • How to make input wavelength
    • 355nm: Continum®Nd:YAG Laser

pp 14 events/day

7Be 7 events/day

  • 1/355nm +1/530nm ⇒ 1/212.6 nm
  • 1/525nm×2 ⇒ 1/262.4 nm
  • Current 222Rn level in XMASS-I
  • From the 214Bi-214Po chain events (dT164ms)
  • in 30 days commissioning data

1ton

100kg fiducial

Ø 80cm

U-Chain

30days

8.2mBq/835kg

(emanated from

the detector itself)

gives BG of

10-4 counts/keV/day/kg

  • Results measured by oscilloscope

N.B. Due to the large refractive index of Kr in 145.2nm, a phase mismatch occurs. (Attenuated in Kr gas). Adding ~7% Xe (refractive index is small), the phase can be adjusted.

Bo-Po timing diff.

  • 178.6nm
  • 145.2nm

To observe pp n (to achieve BG~10-6 counts/keV/day/kg),

Rn must be reduced 1/100 and continuously removed.

SK tank

7mJ/pulse

4mJ/pulse

Kr+Xe(6.8%) 1.0 atm

Kr 1.5 atm

~10mJ/pulse

is almost achieved.

2. Resonant ionizationof Rn

Resonance-enhancedmulti-photon ionization process

4. Test: Kr removal from Ar

  • A laser is used to promote radon atoms to an electronically excited state via resonant single- or multiple-photon absorption and these excited Rn atoms are then ionized by the introduction of another photon.

as a demonstration

  • Kr can be resonantly ionized via 212.6nm 2g+g
  • Excitation cross section
  • Assuming laser’s l shape is Gaussian,
  • s = g2/g1×l2×A21/(8√2 ×p3/2×Dn)
    • Dn : Laser linewidth[Hz]
    • A21: Einstein coefficient[s-1]
    • g2/g1: 2J+1=3
  • Nano second pulse laser Dn 1~10GHz
    • s ~ 10-13cm2
    • 145.2nm = 1.368×10-12mJ

power meter

Rn Resonant ionization scheme

power meter

pressure gauge

HV

oscilloscope

oscilloscope

10ppm Kr in Ar

feedthrough

  • In case of Rn
  • l= 178.6nm or 145.2nm
  • A21~ 107 s-1( no ref., assuming Xe 5p61S0 →5d[1/2]o1)
  • 1/794 nm x 2 ⇒ 1/396.8 nm

10ppm Kr in Ar

212.6 nm

~5 mJ/pulse

at 212.6 nm

The setup

lens

lens

  • 10ppm Kr in Ar w/ 5mJ/pulse laser

resonant 212.6 nm

HV = +1.25kV/cm

non-resonant 211.6 nm

HV = +1.25kV/cm

resonant212.6 nm

HV = -1.25kV/cm

~10mJ/pulse laser is necessitated.

HV

Positive ions!

Kr+ (may be + Ar+)

  • Selectively ionized Rn impurities can be removed
  • with an applied electric field.

8 mm

→ oscilloscope

1~10L/min

ionized by electrons

212.6 nm

→ oscilloscope

A possible system

for 1/100 reduction

10Hz pulse

1~10cm2 x 1m

Resonant ionization of Kr and its electric “sweep” were confirmed.

Conclusion: A system for removing Rn from Xehas been developed. In this study, the feasibility of this method was demonstrated by removing Kr from Ar. Since the necessary laser has already been developed, tests of Rn removal from Xe will begin soon.