*Note • Add mention of Lusitania (near zimmerman telegram and unrestricted warfare. • Add mention of Karl Marx (around Lenin) • Add pictures
CHAPTER 24 review book WAR AND REVOLUTION
THE ROAD TO WORLD WAR I SECTION 1
The United States • Between 1870 and 1914, the United States became an industrial power with a foreign empire. • Beginning in the middle of the 19th century (1800s) the United States began to expand. • The bought Alaska from Russia, gained the Samoan Islands and Hawaii, and acquired Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines by defeating Spain in the Spanish-American War.
Nationalism and the System of Alliances • Two major Alliances formed in Europe. • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in 1882. • Great Britain, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente in 1907. • Meanwhile tensions grew in the Balkans as ethnic groups like the Slavics sought to form their own nation-states like Germany and Italy had done.
Internal Dissent • Class divisions and labor strife led to socialists labor movement. • Some leaders saw these movements as potential revolutions and used military force to quiet them.
Militarism • European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914 to protect each nation’s interests. • The quick preparation of the armed forces is called militarism. • In 1914 Serbia was determined to create a large Slavic state in the Balkins and they were supported by Russia. • Austria-Hungary did not want this to happen.
Militarism • On June 28th, 1914 a member of a Bosnian Serb group called the Black Hand assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the thrown of Austria-Hungary. • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, and soon members of both major alliances joined. • The Great War had begun.
The MAIN causes of World Wars • Militarism • Alliances • Imperialism • Nationalism
The war Section 2
1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate • Propaganda helped the nations at war gain support for the war from their people. • Most thought the war would last only a few months. • The Germans advanced quickly towards France on the Western Front where a new kind of fighting called trench warfare began. • Neither side gained much ground for four years.
1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate • On the Eastern Front Germans won battles against the Russians. • Italy betrayed their allies and attacked Austria-Hungary. • They joined Russia, France and Great Britain in forming the Allied Powers (or the Allies). • Austria-Hungary, Germany and Bulgaria now became known as the Central Powers.
1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter • Trench warfare slowed the war as those trying to cross open fields were machine gunned down. • Airplanes and tanks were used for fighting for the first time in WWI. • Poison gas was also used for the first time.
Widening of the War • The Ottoman Empire entered the war in 1914 on the side of the Central Powers.
Entry of the United States • The United States attempted to remain out of the war. • Woodrow Wilson was reelected based on the slogan “He kept us out of War.” • Unrestricted submarine warfare by the Germans and the Zimmerman Telegram eventually drag them however. • The U.S. provided many men and a major source of money to aid the Allied Powers.
The Home Front: The Impact of Total War • WWI was a total war because it effected the everyday lives of the citizens of every country involved. • As the war dragged on millions of men had to be drafted (conscripted) and governments set up planned economies to conserve goods for the militaries. • This meant set prices, wages, and the rationing of goods.
The Home Front: The Impact of Total War • As support for the war at home waned some governments maintained control at home with force while others used propaganda to create more support for their cause. • Jobs left vacant by men were filled by women who played a major role in wartime production. • This was also a big boost for the women’s rights movement.
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Section 3
Background to Revolution • Soon after Czar Nicholas II took control of Russia in 1894 the loss in the Russo-Japanese War hurt in popularity. • Peasants and the elite both protested for more rights. • Soon Labor strikes and more protest forced Nicholas II to step down. • A provisional government was set up but the new leader decided to remain in WWI which angered the people.
The Rise of Lenin • Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks in Russia. • He believed the provisional government should be overthrown. • The Bolsheviks promised an exit from the war, redistribution of land to the peasants, and that factory profits would go to the workers. • Lenin’s slogan was “Peace, Land, and Bread.”
The Bolsheviks Seize Power • On November 6th, 1917 the Bolsheviks took power and renamed themselves the Communists. • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed and Russia was out of WWI.
Civil War in Russia • The Communists had many enemies both inside and outside of Russia. • Over time however the Communists tightened their grip on power within Russia.
Triumph of the Communists • The Communists were a minority in Russia but were able to hold power because their opponents were fragmented. • By 1921 the Communists had complete control over every aspect of Russia.
SECTION END THE WAR Section 4
The Last Year of the War • After Russia left the war Germany focused its efforts on the western front. • The entry of the United States however forced the Germans to begin to retreat back to Germany as the Allies followed. • The Germans were angry and forced William II to leave the country and replaced him with a new government which signed an armistice (an agreement to end fighting.)
The Peace Settlements • After WWI Woodrow Wilson proposed his 14 Points for peace which included the creation of a League of Nations. • This League was formed but the U.S. did not join. • At the Paris Peace Conference France and Great Britain insisted that Germany should pay for the war and be stripped of their military.
The Peace Settlements • In the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was… • forced to pay all reparations from the war • reduce its army and navy and eliminate its air force. • Give up land to France and Poland • Acknowledge that they and Austria-Hungary had started the war in the War Guilt Clause.
Legacy of World War I (The Great War) • Almost 8.5 million people killed, 7.5 million missing in action, 21 million wounded. • Because it was a total war the powers of governments over their people were strengthened. • Old empires were broken up and new nation states were formed which led to instability.