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Air Quality How are we doing? Where are we going? 10/12/12. William O’Sullivan, Director Division of Air Quality NJ Department of Environmental Protection Bill.o’ Origin of Air Pollution Control Requirements . Federal Clean Air Act – Unlikely to change soon

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air quality how are we doing where are we going 10 12 12

Air QualityHow are we doing?Where are we going?10/12/12

William O’Sullivan, Director

Division of Air Quality

NJ Department of Environmental Protection


origin of air pollution control requirements
Origin of Air Pollution Control Requirements
  • Federal Clean Air Act – Unlikely to change soon
  • Federal EPA rules – many in progress, some delayed
  • States – primary responsibility for attaining health standards
  • Regional Strategies
    • Needed for regional problems
    • Ozone Transport Commission (Example)
    • State Rules still needed
    • Interstate transport of Air Pollution – significant impacts on health

exceedances are prohibited

  • Local governments/Communities
    • More involvement
    • Cumulative impacts and EJ
recent successes
Recent Successes
  • Much lower Fine Particles
    • Well below current NAAQS
  • Lower Ozone
    • At 85 ppb NAAQS
  • Declining Air Toxics Levels
  • Fine Particles - continue improvement
    • Avoid nonattainment of lower NAAQS

(Scheduled December 2012)

  • Ozone – exceeds 75 ppb ozone NAAQS
    • 2015 attainment deadline for 75ppb NAAQS
    • Could exceed 85ppb NAAQS with hot summers (Did in 2012)
    • New NAAQS (60 to 70ppb) expected in 2014
  • Air Toxics – Risks still high
    • Primarily Motor Vehicles
    • Diesel Dominates Risk
    • Cumulative Risk
    • Disproportionate Risk - EJ
focus on particles
Focus on Particles
  • Clean Data Determinations - Air Quality now better than current NAAQS
  • Attainment Designations in progress – need to

demonstrate maintenance of the NAAQS

(10 years)

3. PM offsets - continue until redesignation

- interpollutant offsets possible

  • New NAAQS – December 2012 EPA commitment
  • Need to continue fine particle downward trend

– to avoid exceedances of new NAAQS

wood smoke
Wood Smoke
  • Primary Cause of Nonattainment in Rural States
  • Growing Air Quality Problem in Northeast
  • Outdoor Wood Burners
    • Neighborhood Nuisance
    • NJDEP Enforcement – No visible smoke standard
  • Wood Stoves
    • Draft Federal standards for new stoves
    • Will not solve misuse
    • Will not address existing stoves
  • NJ Suburbs and Rural Areas
    • Future exceedances of health standards?
    • No burn days?
    • Woodstove changeout Programs?

Sulfur Dioxide

Criteria Pollutant – Health and Welfare NAAQS

Converts to Sulfates – Major component of Fine Particles (Precursor)

Causes haze – Brigantine Wildlife Refuge (Class 1 area for visibility)

Causes acid rain – kills fish, damages plants and structures

sulfur dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide
  • NJ Dominated by Coal in 2009 (10 units)
    • 4 Units – had scrubbers prior to 2009 (1 will cease coal use in 2015)
    • 2 Units – ceased coal use in 2010
    • 3 Units – scrubbers operational in 2010
    • 1 Unit – will cease coal use in 2013
  • NJ Sulfur in Home Heating Oil Limits
    • 2000 ppm now
    • 500 ppm in 2014
    • 15 ppm in 2016
  • Diesel – EPA Rules
    • 15 ppm phased in over last 5 years

Result – Dramatic decrease in S02 and sulfates

Challenge – Coal in other states

out of state powerplants
Out of State Powerplants
  • EPA Prevention of Significant Deterioration Cases
    • Air Pollution Control Technology Focus
    • Seek Best Available Control Technology
    • Examples – Ohio Edison, Homer City, Allegheny, GenOn
  • Clean Air Act Section 126 Petitions
    • Health Standard focus
    • Seek emission reduction sufficient to avoid exceedances of health


    • GenOn Portland example
  • EPA Mercury and Air Toxics (MAT) Rules
    • Indirectly controls SO2
  • EPA Cross State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) – Court Overturned
    • SO2 – generally effective caps
    • NOx – not sufficient for 75 ppb ozone

Table 1

Comparison of Allowable Short-Term Emissions between the 400 MW Coal-Fired Portland Power Plant and the Proposed 655 MW Natural Gas Fired Newark Energy Center

ozone transport commission otc regional control strategies
NOx Sources:

Model Rules/MOUs:

EGU’s (Oil and Gas-fired Boilers)*

High Electric Demand Day (HEDD) Turbines*

New Small Boilers

Stationary Generators

Draft Model Rules:

5. Non-Road Equipment Idling*

6. Natural Gas Compressor Stations

Categories Under Review:

7. Municipal Waste Incinerators

8. Promote Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy

9. Coal-fired Boilers (EPA)

VOC Sources:

Model Rules/MOUs:

Large VOC Stationary Storage Tanks*

Autobody Refinishing

Consumer Products

Architectural/Industrial Coatings

Draft Model Rules:

Solvent Cleaning (Industrial/Commercial)

Paint Thinners (Consumer)

Category Under Review:

7. Stage 1 and 2 Vapor Recovery

Ozone Transport Commission (OTC)Regional Control Strategies

*Existing NJ Rule Equivalent to Model Already Adopted

mobile sources

Mobile Sources

Significant contributors to Ozone,

Toxics, PM2.5, GHG


Diesel Emission Reduction Efforts

  • Mandatory Retrofit Law
    • In last phase – DPWs and miscellaneous on and off-road public diesel vehicles
  • Private off-road construction vehicles
    • Implementing EO60
    • 175 vehicle pilot program
    • Retrofits of certain engines used on state contracts
  • Ports
    • Trucks, ships, cargo handlers, cranes, trains, tugs
    • NJ NY Port Authority diesel emission reduction plan
    • Other ports also reducing emission (Camden, other states)
    • EPA 2015 sulfur limit for oil used by ships
  • Diesel I/M Program

Continued – Diesel Emission Reduction Efforts

  • 4. Stationary diesels
    • NOx RACT Rules
    • Cancer risk management with construction permits
    • Model fine particles and NO2 NAAQS
  • Emergency Electricity Diesels
    • Limited to blackouts and brownouts
    • Can be used for peaking or DSM only if well controlled
    • (NOx and PM)


Where Do Emissions Need to Decrease?

  • Ozone
    • Vehicles – VOC & NOx
    • Area Sources - VOC
    • Point Sources – Out of State NOx
  • Particles
    • Wood Smoke
    • Diesel Engines – Especially NonRoad
    • Area Sources – Small Engines
    • Out of State S02 and PM
  • Air Toxics
    • Diesels
    • Small Neighborhood Sources
      • Dry Cleaners
      • Autobody Repair/Painting
    • Gasoline
      • New Vehicles
      • Maintain Existing Vehicles

Division of Air Quality Website:  (links to programs, regulations and other topics found here)

Air Quality Permitting Program: (applications, forms, testing information, etc.)

Bureau of Air Quality Planning: (State Implementation Plans (SIPs), inventory, etc.)

Bureau of Air Monitoring: data, NJ air quality forecast)

Bureau of Mobile Sources:

USEPA Greenbook for Nonattainment areas: (nationwide information on nonattainment areas and classifications for criteria pollutants)

USEPA State Implementation Plan Status and information:

ISG notices come out on AQPP Listserv.  Subscribing to Listserv can be found at :

AirNow: quality forecasts)