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Rail Transit Impacts on Trip Making and Land Development in Shanghai, China. This study is jointly supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (Cambridge, MA) and the University of Texas at Austin Prepared by Haixiao Pan, Ph.D.

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rail transit impacts on trip making and land development in shanghai china

Rail Transit Impacts on Trip Making and Land Development in Shanghai, China

This study is jointly supported by

Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)

the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (Cambridge, MA) and

the University of Texas at Austin

Prepared by

Haixiao Pan, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of urban Planning

Tongji University, Shanghai, China

E-mail: hxpank@online.sh.cn

Ming Zhang, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Community & Regional Planning

The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712

E-mail: zhangm@mail.utexas.edu

slide2

1.0 Introduction

  • The past ten years witnessed a major boom in rail transit development in China.
slide3

1.0 Introduction

· Intention for the metro:

1 improve mobility

2 spatial structuring against sprawl

· Purpose of the study:

1 How has the introduction of Shanghai’s metro rail influenced trip making?

2 Does the development of the metro system affect land use around transit stations?

slide4

Location and population

  • at the junction of the east coastal economic belt and the Yangtze River Basin economic belt.
  • 18 districts and one island county,
  • total area of 6,340.5 square kilo-meters
  • Pudong New Area:523 square kilo-meters
  • population total : around 17 m. registered :13.44m.
  • 2.0 Background Information of Shanghai
slide5

2.0 Background Information of Shanghai

  • Density:

Central area density in year of 2000 and 1990

(thousand, person/square km)

3.1 times higher than Beijing, and 2.9 timeshigher than Tianjin.

slide6

2.0 Background Information of Shanghai

  • Density (in 100s persons
  • per square kilometers):
slide8

2.0 Background Information of Shanghai

  • Economic growth

Growth rate over 10 percent for more than thirteen years

slide10

2.0 Background Information of Shanghai

  • Metro in Shanghai:

Rail Transit Passenger Trips in Shanghai

Rail Transit Lines in Shanghai

slide11

3.0 StudyMethodology

  • Survey year and sample size:

Conducted by the Department of Urban Planning at Tongji University of 40 students and faculty member in the three years

slide12

3.0 StudyMethodology

  • Interview: passengers and residents :
  • passengers waiting for the train
  • residents within the buffer zone
  • Trip purpose
  • Trip Modes
  • Changes in Trip Times
  • Frequency of downtown visit
  • Opinion: facility, service, connecting transport
slide13

3.0 Study Methodology: Field survey:

  • Functional composition:
  • Create two buffer zones around each of the rail station
  • Compare shares of each type of land use between the two buffers
  • Studies land use for between the 0-500 meter buffer and the 500-1,000-meter buffer for suburban stations.
  • Development intensity:
  • compare in 200-500 and 500-1000 meters in periphery
  • density in low(FAR< 1.0),medium(FAR 1.0~2.5), high(FAR>2.5)
slide15

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 1 influence on trip making characteristics in Shanghai

Trip purpose:

rail transit is mostly used for work commute

In 2000 less developed service in suburban ,more travel for recreation

slide16

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 1 influence on trip making characteristics in Shanghai
slide17

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 1 influence on trip making characteristics in Shanghai

Year 2002

slide18

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 1 influence on trip making characteristics in Shanghai

Trip Modes

Big shift from bus to metro.

Less passenger in 2000 due to:

fare too high.

not direct link to destinations

inconvenient for transfers

slide19

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 1 influence on trip making characteristics in Shanghai

Changes in Trip Times

Increase in less than 30 minutes proportions

Decrease in longer time proportions

slide20

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 1 influence on trip making characteristics in Shanghai

Frequency of downtown visit

Quite frequent to visit downtown for the vitality of city center

slide22

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 2 Land use near the station
  • Land Use Composition :

land use compositions in 0-200 vs. 200-500 buffer

slide23

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 2 Land use near the station
  • Land Use Composition :

Land use composition in suburban stations of Metro Line-1, Shanghai

slide24

4.0 StudyResults:

  • Land use near the station:
slide25

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 2 Land use near the station
  • Land Development Intensity :

Comparison of development intensity between 0-200 and 200-500 buffer zones in Shanghai

slide26

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 2 Land use near the station
  • Land Development Intensity :

compare the land uses between 2000 and 2003 for Xinzhuang Station:

more commercial and office uses replaced residential uses in areas closer to the station

slide27

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 2 Land use near the station
  • Land Development Intensity :

Development intensity among three metro lines in Shanghai

Line-1 is more intense than Line-2

Line-2 is more intense than Line-3

slide28

4.0 StudyResults:

Change in Housing Prices

Jiang wan Zhen Station, the North terminal of Line-3

Sun Yat-sen Park Station

slide29

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 3 The case of Sun Yat-sen Park Station
  • Interchange of line-1 and line-2
  • 320 thousand residents In an area of 1.5 kilometers in radius
  • 918 thousand residents In an area of 3.0 kilometers in radius
slide30

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 3 The case of Sun Yat-sen Park Station
  • land use
  • site: part of Shanghai Steel and Iron Company Unit-3.
slide31

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 3 The case of Sun Yat-sen Park Station
  • Dream of Dragon project:
slide32

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 3 The case of Sun Yat-sen Park Station
  • Planning concept of evolution:
  • Follow Japan and Hongkong, take the advantage of the metro interchange
  • relocate the Park Station of Line-2 500 meter west.
  • three facilities on the site
  • attracted interests from many developers.
  • Shanghai Changfeng Inc. won the project
  • Dream of Dragon project:
  • investment:US$366 millions
  • construction started in June 2002 , part open in December 2005
  • floor space area :320 thousand square meters
  • 25 thousand sqm for office use
  • 5-star hotel with 780 guest rooms.
  • 200 thousand square meters Shopping center
slide33

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 3 The case of Sun Yat-sen Park Station
slide34

4.0 StudyResults:

  • 3 The case of Sun Yat-sen Park Station
  • Dream of Dragon project:
  • transport connection
  • 1000-square meter lobby to the station
  • 1500-sqm transfer area for taxi and bus
  • 45-meter long skyway connect with line-3
  • 750 parking spaces for cars.
  • Key elements:
  • willingness of various stakeholders
  • institutional supports, FAR bonus
  • More terminal complex TOD
slide35

First Phase Opening:

December Last Year

Not So Success Yet

slide36

Hinterland Area Double

Modal Split:

70% by Public Transport

Metro Double the Visitor

Surveyed in August 2005

slide37

5.0 Conclusion:

  • Rail transit in Shanghai does change the trip making characteristics of those living near the stations
  • Changes in land use patterns associated with the rail transit are also consistent with the urban economics theory:
  • Rail transit does affect land use in areas where the system goes in Shanghai
slide38

5.0 Conclusion: (con’t)

  • The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in China’s transportation planning and land use decisions
  • City wide transport strategy is critical to guarantee the relative accessibility
  • The influence range of a station is far beyond the 5 minutes , so connecting transport is very important to be concerned.