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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. Characteristics and Treatment of Common Endocrine Disorders. GIGANTISM and DWARFISM. Gigantism Hyperfunction of pituitary – too much growth hormone In preadolescence – overgrowth of long bones leads to excessive tallness Dwarfism

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endocrine system


Characteristics and Treatment


Common Endocrine Disorders

gigantism and dwarfism
  • Gigantism
    • Hyperfunctionof pituitary – too much growth hormone
    • In preadolescence – overgrowth of long bones leads to excessive tallness
  • Dwarfism
    • Hypofunctionof pituitary in childhood
    • Small size, but body proportions and intellect normal
    • Rx – early diagnosis, injection of growth hormone
  • Overactive thyroid gland
  • Too much thyroxine leads to enlargement of gland
  • Symptoms – consuming large quantities of food but lose weight
  • Goiter – enlargement of gland
  • Exophthalmos – bulging of eyeballs
  • Rx – partial or total removal of gland, drugs to reduce thyroxine, radiation
  • Not enough thyroxine
  • May be due to lack of iodine (simple goiter)
  • Symptoms – dry, itchy skin; dry and brittle hair, constipation, muscle cramps at night
  • Hypoparathyroidism
    • Decreased calcium levels affect functions of nerves
  • Symptoms
    • Convulsive twitching develops, person dies of spasms in the respiratory muscles
  • Rx
    • Vitamin D, calcium and parathormone
diabetes mellitus
  • Cause – decreased secretion of insulin
  • Symptoms – polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, weight loss, blurred vision, and possible diabetic coma
  • If not treated, excess glucose in blood (hyperglycemia) and secreted in urine (glycosuria)
  • If too much insulin given, blood sugar can get too low (hypoglycemia) and person can develop insulin shock
  • Type II diabetes is not insulin-dependent – most common, usually familial, occurs later in life, usually treated with diet
  • Test for diabetes – blood sample at home, normal blood sugar is 80-100 mg
  • Patients develop enlarged hands, lips and nose, and their chin protrudes more than it used to.
addison s disease
Addison's disease
  • A rare, chronic endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). It is characterized by a number of relatively nonspecific symptoms, such as abdominal pain and weakness, but under certain circumstances, these may progress to Addisonian crisis, a severe illness which may include very low blood pressure and coma.
  • The condition arises from problems with the adrenal gland and can be caused by damage by the body's own immune system, certain infections, or various rarer causes
  • Addison's disease and other forms of hypoadrenalism are generally diagnosed via blood tests and medical imaging.[
what is cushing s syndrome
What Is Cushing's Syndrome?
  • Cushing's syndrome is a rare condition. Out of one million people, approximately 5 to 25 cases of Cushing's syndrome are diagnosed each year. Of those diagnosed, more than 70% are women between 20 and 50 years old.1,2
  • Cushing's syndrome is a result of high levels of cortisone-type steroids in the body. It can be caused by taking high doses of steroid medications for a long period of time or by an overproduction of a hormone called cortisol in the body.
  • When the body produces too much cortisol, it's usually caused by a tumor of the pituitary gland. These tumors produce a hormone called ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) that causes the adrenal glands to produce and secrete too much cortisol.
  • The adrenal glands are located above each kidney and release cortisol into the bloodstream. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps the body deal with stress, reduces the body's inflammatory response, and helps balance the effects of insulin. But high levels of cortisol in your blood for too long can cause Cushing's syndrome.
  • The patient had two of his/her parathyroid glands surgically removed. This procedure can lead to a condition characterized by muscle twitching and lead to seizures. The condition that the patient must be aware of is:
  • Liver damage, heart disease, testicular changes, and breast growth in males are symptoms of:
  • On his way to work, the student witnessed a traffic accident. His heart rate increased and his mental alertness improved as he assisted the victims. The student’s response result from the release of:
  • Terri has an excessive appetite but has trouble gaining weight. She also has exophthalmos. What disorder might she have?
  • The obstetrician instructs a new mother about the changes in her body He/she explains that her breast milk production is the result of:
  • The pregnant woman began to have contractions of the uterus in preparation for childbirth. What is the name of the hormone that initiated her contractions?