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Desain Tata Letak

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  1. Desain Tata Letak

  2. Tujuan Strategi Tata Letak • Develop an economical layout which will meet the requirements of: • product design and volume (product strategy) • process equipment and capacity (process strategy) • quality of work life (human resource strategy) • building and site constraints (location strategy)

  3. Tipe – Tipe Tata Letak • Fixed-position layout • Process-oriented layout • Office layout • Retail layout • Warehouse layout • Product-oriented layout

  4. What is Facility Layout • Location or arrangement of everything within & around buildings • Objectives are to maximize • Customer satisfaction • Utilization of space, equipment, & people • Efficient flow of information, material, & people • Employee morale & safety

  5. Desain Tata Letak harus Mempertimbangkan Objektivitas Berikut: • Utilisasi ruang, peralatan dan orang yang lebih tinggi • Aliran informasi yang lebih baik • Moral karyawan yang lebih baik • Interaksi dengan pelanggan yang lebih baik • Fleksibelitas

  6. Tipe – Tipe Tata Letak • Fixed-position layout “Tata Letak dengan Posis Tetap” • Memenuhi persyaratan tata letak untuk proyek yang besar dan memakan tempat seperti proyek pembuatan kapal • Process-oriented layout “Tata Letak berorientasi Proyek” • Berhubungan dengan produksi dengan volume rendah dan bervariasi tinggi • Office layout “Tata Letak Kantor” • Menempatakan para karyawan, peralatan mereka dan ruangan / kantor yang melancarkan aliran informasi

  7. Tipe – Tipe Tata Letak • Retail/service layout “Tata Letak Ritel” • Menempatkan rak – rak dan memberi tanggapan atas perilaku pelanggan • Warehouse layout “Tata Letak Gudang” • Melihat kelebihan atau kekurangan antara ruangan dan sistem penanganan bahan • Product-oriented layout “Tata Letak yang berorientasi pada Produk” • Mencari utilisasi karyawan dan mesin yang paling baik dalam produksi yang kontinyu

  8. Layout Strategies Project Job Shop Office Retail Warehouse Repetitive /Continuous (fixed-position) (Process- (storage) oriented) (product- oriented) Examples Allstate Insurance Microsoft Kroger’s Supermarket Walgreens Bloomingdales Federal-Mogul’s Warehouse The Gap’s distribution center Sony’s TV Assembly Line Dodge Caravans Minivans Shouldice Hospital Olive Garden Ingal Ship Building Corp. Trump Plaza Pittsburgh Airport Problem Move material to the limited storage areas around the site Manage varied material flow for each product Locate workers requiring frequent contact close to each other Expose customer to high-margin items Balance low-cost storage with low-cost material handling Equalize the task time at each workstation

  9. Contoh Layout Kantor

  10. Requirements of a Good Layout • an understanding of capacity and space requirements • selection of appropriate material handling equipment • decisions regarding environment and aesthetics • identification and understanding of the requirements for information flow • identification of the cost of moving between the various work areas

  11. Constraints on Layout Objectives • Product design & volume • Process equipment & capacity • Quality of work life • Building and site

  12. Layout strategy Example Criteria Service/retail Drug store Expose customer to high Grocery store margin items Department store Storage Distributor Minimize storage and Warehouse handling costs Product oriented TV assembly line Minimize line imbalance, delay, and idle time Layout Strategies, Examples, and Criteria

  13. Areas of Concern in Layout Strategy Communication Service Areas Material Attributes Layout Strategy Warehousing Work Cell Safety Material Flow

  14. Fixed-Position Layout • Design is for stationary project • Workers and equipment come to site • Complicating factors • Limited space at site • Changing material needs

  15. Office Layout • Design positions people, equipment, & offices for maximum information flow • Arranged by process or product • Example: Payroll dept. is by process • Relationship chart used • Examples • Insurance company • Software company

  16. Office Layout Floor Plan Accounting Finance Fin. Acct. Manager Brand X

  17. Retail/Service Layout Video • Design maximizes product exposure to customers • Decision variables • Store flow pattern • Allocation of (shelf) space to products • Types • Grid design • Free-flow design

  18. Retail /Service Layout -Grid Design Grocery Store Bread Meat Produce Milk Frozen Foods Check-out Carts Office

  19. A Good Service Layout (Servicescape) Considers • Ambient conditions - background characteristics such as lighting, sound, smell, and temperature. • Spatial layout and functionality - which involve customer circulation path planning • Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts - characteristics of building design that carry social significance

  20. Conveyor Truck Order Picker Zones Warehouse Layout Floor Plan

  21. Product-Oriented Layout • Facility organized around product • Design minimizes line imbalance • Delay between work stations • Types: Fabrication line; assembly line

  22. Product-Oriented Requirements • Standardized product • High production volume • Stable production quantities • Uniform quality of raw materials & components

  23. Product-Oriented Layout Advantages • Lower variable cost per unit • Lower material handling costs • Lower work-in-process inventories • Easier training & supervision • Rapid throughput

  24. Product-Oriented Layout Disadvantages • Higher capital investment • Special equipment • Any work stoppage stops whole process • Lack of flexibility • Volume • Product

  25. Precedence Diagram Example 5 C 10 Min. 11 3 7 3 A B G F I 4 D 12 11 E H