John Wyclif or Wycliffe • At least 28 different spellings
John Wycliffe • Prominent in 1350 as an English Reformer during the Great Schism. • Born between 1320 & 1330 in Ipresswell, England About 44 miles NW of York. Hapswell, England
John Wycliffe • Educated at Oxford (same place as William of Ockham or Occam) • At this time Oxford was a RCC University • He was a strong scholar, philosopher, and theologian who was a platotist or realist as opposed to nominalist.
3 Views that were very controversial • Opposed the ability of the corrupt church to collect taxes. (This made him popular with the government.) • Opposed the corrupt civil authorities (oops there goes his popularity) • Opposed transubstantiation had a “real presence” view of communion
John Wycliffe • His followers translated the Bible into English from the Vulgate. Was revised by John Purvey in 1384. • Died Dec 31, 1384 of a stroke and buried on church grounds.
John Wycliffe • Declared a heretic at the Council of Constance 1415 was exhumed, burned and his ashes were thrown into the Swift River.
Major Views of John Wycliffe • Sola Scriptura, the Bible is the only authoritative guide for faith and practice. • Attacked the institution of the Papacy – said only Christ was (is) the head of the church. Also said the Pope could sin. • A true church has only two orders Elder and Deacon. Thus denying the various orders of monks and nuns.
Major Views of John Wycliffe • Clergy can get married. • Denied Baptismal regeneration. • Denied transubstantiation held real presence view same as would Martin Luther
Major Views of John Wycliffe • Against Crusades indulgences. And religious orders. • Taught Predestination but not real clear on Justification by faith (per James Stitzinger)
Major Views of John Wycliffe • Followers called the Lollards or mumblers
John Huss • A Bohemian (modern day Czechoslovakia) • Attended University of Prague and in 1401 became Dean of the philosophical faculty—a humanist • He became a highly respected preacher in Bohemia.
John Huss • He adopted many of Wycliffe’s views about 1403 • Preached against abuses in RCC (Indulgences, Popes, Crusades) • Huss’ preaching led to tremendous criticism and Huss had to flee to Southern Bohemia.
John Huss • A Council was called to quell the controversy • HRE Emperor Sigismund called the Council of Constance in 1414 to settle the Papal schism and elect a new Pope Martin V Pope Martin V
John Huss • Huss invited promised safety & came reluctantly • A month later he is invited to the Papal Palace but is thrown in jail • There he was given a sort of mock trial
John Huss • June granted a public hearing not to give his side—but to answer false trumped up charges 39 articles • Declared an obstinate heretic and a disciple of Wycliffe—was deposed (disposed) stripped of priesthood and burned outside the city.
Three Kinds of Faith Faith about God Faith that God and the Word exists Faith formed in love Three Places to Put Faith Man’s preparation The Pope Bible as source of authority Huss’ Doctrine
Huss’ Doctrine • Well-articulated views on the Church • Not clear on Predestination • “I indeed confess that I hold the true opinions which master John Wyclif, Professor of Sacred theology, taught, not because he declared them, but because Scripture and infallible reason declare them” John Huss
2 Forms of Followers • Hussites & Morovians • Hussites – turned back to Catholic • Morovians – more toward Luther Hussites
William Tyndale 1494-1536 • Born in Gloucestershire, studied from 1510-1515 at Magdalene Hall Oxford and later at Cambridge • Received persecution in England, he fled to the HRE (Germany) and never came back • Known for his translation of the New Testament which he completed in Germany in 1525
William Tyndale • Frequently revised his translation all his life. Also translated several O.T. books. His translation was from the original languages. • Had a tough life! Was shipwrecked once where he lost his manuscripts. Had secret agents (007) following him. Police raids at his printer, often betrayed by friends
William Tyndale • Lesson—Satan doesn’t want God’s word out there. • In 1535, he was arrested, imprisoned at Vilvorde, near Brussels. Strangled and burned at the stake Oct. 6, 1536
William Tyndale -- Major Doctrines • Stress on the authority of Scripture • Held to a pure church • Opposed baptismal regeneration • Justification by faith • Held Zwingli’s view of the Lord’s Supper as a memorial • (W. Tyndale—from class notes. 2000 Master’s Seminary, James Stitzinger)
Girolamo Savonarola 1452-1498 • A RCC Reformer • An Italian Reformer in Florence who joined the Dominicans in 1474 after agirl dumped him • A follower of ThomasAquinasbut not a very good priest
Girolamo Savonarola • Became an excellent preacher; settled in Florence. Preached against the materialism and sins of the city • Kept the French King Charles VIII from invading Florence King Charles VIII
Girolamo Savonarola • Led Florence to flee their immorality and pleasure loving by having huge pyramid shaped bon-fires where people threw gambling equipment, cosmetics, fancy furniture, false hair etc
Girolamo Savonarola • Pope Alex VI tried to win him back to the RCC by offering him a position as Cardinal • Savonarola denounced the Pope then was excommunicated • 1498 he was arrested, tried for heresy, hanged then burned. During his torture he recanted several times but they burned him anyway. Pope Alex VI
Not as evangelistic as Wycliffe more a moral preacher. Ascetic in nature Was submissive to the RCC said “Whoever departs from the (RCC) Church departs from Christ” Preached moral action Augustinian view of salvation—as a gift of God Had visions and prophecy Girolamo Savonarola Doctrinal Views