Botulinum toxin By: james and alan
The most poisonous substance known to man • Produced by the common bacteria Clostridium botulinum • Cause of Botulism • 75 millionths of a gram to kill a person • 1kg could kill entire human population • Different types (A-G) • Used for Botox :D!
The Bacteria • Found in the soil of many countries • Very heat resistant (>200°F) • Obligate Anaerobe • Flourishes in oxygen free environments of canned food and other food products • Killed by a pressurized boil or other intense heat
Different Types • Types A-G • All except C and D are toxic to humans • C and D are poisonous to animals • Type A predominates the soil of North and South America • Type B is found in deep soil • Type E is found in water and is prevalent in aquatic sediments in Norway and Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, the Baltic coast of Poland and Russia.
Botulism • Caused by eating contaminated food, or having a contaminated wound. • Causes depression of muscles, leading to Double vision, drooping of eyelids, loss of facial expression and swallowing problems. • In more advanced stages, it can cause weakness of arms and legs, depressed breathing and respiratory failure, which causes paralysis, comas, and death.
Botulism Treatment • The only drug currently available to treat infant botulism is Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous-Human (BIG-IV or BabyBIG) • Patients with severe cases must be on a ventilator for weeks, plus intensive medical and nursing care, due to the respiratory failure and paralysis that occur. • There are two primary Botulinum Antitoxins available for treatment of wound and foodborne botulism.
Human Uses • Used for Botox injections, and treatment of upper motor neuron syndrome, muscle spasms, excessive sweating, and migraine headaches.