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PM in Europe - State and past trends. Emissions and concentration levels Steinar Larssen Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) European Topic Centre for Air Quality and Climate Change (ETC-ACC). Conclusions on PM emissions.

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pm in europe state and past trends
PM in Europe - State and past trends

Emissions and concentration levels

Steinar Larssen

Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU)

European Topic Centre for Air Quality and Climate Change (ETC-ACC)

conclusions on pm emissions
Conclusions on PM emissions
  • PM emission and trends data have been improved, but are still uncertain
  • Primary PM10 and precursor gases emissions have been reduced by 18 % and 40% since 1990, respectively.
  • Source contributions:

- differs in EU15 and AC13

  • Resuspension of particles from road surfaces in an important source, but poorly quantified; source strength highly dependent on weather/climatic conditions
pm 10 emissions 2000
PM10emissions, 2000

European emissions of primary PM10 and PM10 precursors, 2000 (in ktonnes)

29 countries

pm 10 emissions 20001

35

EU15

30

AC13

25

20

% contribution

15

10

5

0

Energy

Industry

Other (Energy

Road

Agriculture

Waste

Industries

(Energy +

+ Non Energy)

Transport

Processes)

PM10 emissions, 2000

Source contributions, primary PM10

pm emissions 2000

50

45

EEA18

40

AC13

35

30

25

% contribution

20

15

10

5

0

Energy

Industry

Other (Energy

Road

Agriculture

Waste

Industries

(Energy +

+ Non Energy)

Transport

Processes)

PM emissions, 2000

Source contributions, PM precursor gases (weighted)

conclusions on state of pm 10 2001
Conclusions on state of PM10, 2001
  • Data from 928 stations (97 / 417 / 293 / 77)

750 cities and towns

  • Methods: Beta 40% ; Gravi 20% ; TEOM 20% ; nondef 20%
  • Limit value exceedances at 34% of the stations
  • Limit value exceedances in cities with total 30 mill people
  • Population exposure: Remember importance of indoor exposure
  • Average annual concentrations Rural 20.6 µg/m3

Urban 25.2 µg/m3

Traffic 32.1 µg/m3

slide8
From 89 traffic/urban station pairs:
    • 35% higher concentration at traffic stations
    • Up to 90% higher
  • Regional differences
    • Rural background higher in some accession countries and in NL, BE and NW DE
    • Urban concentrations highest in Southern/Eastern Europe?
  • The indicative LV for 2010 was exceeded at most stations in cities and at about 50% at the rural sites.
  • Significant uncertainty in such summary assessments due to
    • Representativeness of stations
    • Different monitoring methods
pm 10 2001 map
PM10 2001 Map

PM10

Rural stations

Annual average

Note: different methods,no corrections(also following maps)

pm 10 2001 map1
PM10 2001 Map

PM10

Rural stations

”Max 36”

pm 10 2001 map2
PM10 2001 Map

Urban background

”Max 36”

pm 10 2001 map3
PM10 2001 Map

PM 10

Hot spot

”Max 36”

population exposure to pm 10
”Population exposure” to PM10

Population in cities according to concentration range, ”max 36”

pm 10 2001 distribution of concentrations at stations

200

MAX8

MAX36

180

stage 1

stage 2

160

y = 2,4747x

Linear (MAX36)

Linear (MAX8)

140

120

y = 1,65x

100

80

60

40

20

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

annual average ug/m3

PM10 2001 Distribution of concentrations at stations

Rural stations

pm 10 2001 distribution of concentrations at stations1

200

MAX8

MAX36

180

stage 1

y = 2,3613x

stage 2

160

Linear (MAX36)

Linear (MAX8)

140

120

y = 1,6026x

100

80

60

40

20

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

annual average ug/m3

PM10 2001 Distribution of concentrations at stations

Urban stations

pm10 2001 distribution of concentrations at stations

250

MAX8

MAX36

stage 2

stage 1

200

Linear (MAX36)

Linear (MAX8)

y = 2,1903x

150

y = 1,5476x

100

50

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

annual average ug/m3

PM10 2001 Distribution of concentrations at stations

Street stations

pm 10 for station types
PM10 for station types

PM10, Annual average mean - max

90

2001

max

80

70

60

50

ug/m3

40

30

mean

20

10

0

rural

urban

street

pm 10 at hot spot stations 2001
PM10 at hot-spot stations, 2001

Data from ”station pairs”Ratio PM10 street / PM10 urban, Annual average

Average ratio: 1.34  0.25

Also up to 50 more daily exceedances at street station

conclusions on pm 10 past tendencies
Conclusions on PM10 past tendencies
  • Time series are too short (1997-2001) to conclude statistically on trend
  • Only 6 countries have a significant amount of stations reporting data since 1997 (UK, NL, BE, CZ, CH, ES)
  • The tendency is towards lower concentrations (15-20%) but the tendency is not monotonic
  • The upward tendency since 1999 is to a large extent guided by the tendency in the Czech Republic.
slide21
The tendency, and absolute amount of reduction, is on the average, about the same for rural, urban and hot-spot areas
  • Much of the downward tendency can be explained by reductions in rural concentrations of secondary inorganic particles (SO4, NO3, ....)
pm 10 concentration tendencies 1997 2001
PM10 concentration tendencies 1997-2001

Annual average183 stations

36th highest day193 stations

pm 10 trends 1997 2001
PM10 trends1997-2001

Location of stations with >4 years with data

Mainly UK, NL, BE, CH, CZ, ES

the use of correction factors for pm 10
The use of correction factors for PM10

Information extracted from the Compliance Reporting Questionnaire, for 2001

Total stations: 1098

No methods info on

353 stations

pm rural tendencies 1992 2001

70

CH(4)

DE(8)

60

ES(4)

JRC(1)

50

40

3

µg/m

30

20

10

0

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

PM Rural tendencies 1992-2001

PM (”SPM”) at EMEP stations, country averages

CH: PM10 from 1997 onwardsDE: PM10 from 1999 onwards

Source: EMEP-CCC

pm rural tendencies 1997 2001

45

CH(6)

CZ(19)

40

UK(3)

NL(7)

DE(8)

35

ES(5)

30

25

3

µg/m

20

15

10

5

0

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

PM Rural tendencies 1997-2001

Country averages

CH: PM10DE: PM10 from 1999 onwards

pm 10 rural tendencies
PM10 Rural tendencies

Secondary inorganic particles (SO4) (EMEP data)

Rough estimate of reduction of sulfate and nitrate particles 1997-2000: Source: EMEP-CCC~ 5 µg/m3

pm 10 urban tendencies 1997 2001

100,00

90,00

80,00

70,00

BE(3)

60,00

CH(4)

CZ(29)

50,00

UK(29)

NL(5)

PL(4)

40,00

SE(2)

30,00

20,00

10,00

0,00

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

PM10 Urban tendencies 1997-2001

Urban background, 36th highest day, country averages

pm 10 street tendencies 1997 2001

160,00

140,00

120,00

BE(4)

CH(2)

100,00

CZ(5)

DE(1)

ES(17)

80,00

FI(2)

UK(5)

NL(4)

60,00

PL(1)

PT(1)

40,00

20,00

0,00

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

PM10 Street tendencies 1997-2001

Traffic stations, 36th highest day, country averages

conclusions on other pm metrics
Conclusions on other PM metrics
  • Available data on PM2.5, PM1.0 and UFP are too scarce to draw firm conclusions
  • The PM2.5 / PM10 ratio is about 0.65 (average 0.4-0.8)
  • The indicative PM2.5 LV of 20 µg/m3 (aa) was
    • met at all rural and most urban sites
    • exceeded at 15 or 23 traffic sites
slide32
PM1.0 was reported from 15 stations in 4 countries
  • The PM1.0 / PM2.5 ratio was about 0.75
  • Annual average PM1.0 range: 6-21 µg/m3
  • Max. 24 h concentration: 147 µg/m3
  • UFP was reported from 15 stations in 5 countries
  • High surplus burden of UFP at traffic sites
pm 2 5 concentrations europe 2001
PM2.5 Concentrations, Europe 2001
  • 13 countries with data
  • 119 station years

38 urban background

23 traffic

58 rural

  • Methods: Gravimetry: 8 countries TEOM: 6 countries
pm 2 5 at urban and street stations
PM2.5 at urban and street stations

36 of 61 stations met a threshold of 20 µg/m3 in 2001

ratio pm 2 5 pm 10
Ratio PM2.5 / PM10

Somewhat higher at rural than at traffic stations,

reflecting resuspension at traffic stations

pm 1 0 concentrations 2001
PM1.0 concentrations, 2001
  • 4 countries
  • 15 station years
  • no rural stations
  • Range: 6-21 µg/m3 annual average
  • Max. daily: > 50 µg/m3 at most stations
  • Max. 24 h conc: 147 µg/m3
ultra fine particles ufp 2001

45,000

40,000

35,000

30,000

25,000

Number of UFP

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0

<10

<50

<100

<280

<500

<800

<1000

Total

Size fraction

Ultra-fine particles, UFP 2001

Number size distributions

 Traffic Urban background Rural background

ufp 2001

100000

90000

80000

70000

60000

50000

40000

Number of UFP

30000

20000

10000

0

R(B) SB U(B) T

0

1

2

3

4

5

Station type

UFP 2001

Total number of particles