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TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO SANITATION. 1.1 Important of sanitation in Food Service Industry Responsibility for overseeing the safety of its own processes and products. If a food establishment is involved in a food borne disease outbreak, consumers may seeking legal action.

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topic 1 introduction to sanitation

1.1 Important of sanitation in Food Service Industry

  • Responsibility for overseeing the safety of its own processes and products.
  • If a food establishment is involved in a food borne disease outbreak, consumers may seeking legal action.
  • Financial loss and damaged reputation are some of the outcomes.
  • Start a food safety assurance program in the food establishment. These help ensure that proper safeguards are used during food production and service.
why food hygiene is important
Why food hygiene is important

Good food hygiene is essential to:

  • Ensure that the food you sell is safe.
  • It will help you protect your customers and the reputation of your business.
  • To obey the law.
  • Poor hygiene procedures in your food business can put your customers at risk.
  • To avoid food poisoning.
  • To prevent cross contamination.
  • Taking the correct steps to make sure that the food that you handle and serve is safe.
  • Good food hygiene practices:have satisfied customers, a safe and clean workplace, and meet your legal requirements.
  • Bad food hygiene practices can lead to food contamination and outbreaks of food poisoning.
the changing pattern of food hygiene
The Changing Pattern of Food Hygiene
  • From “when it is clean, it is safe to eat”.
  • The implementation of hygienic storage facilities, machinery, equipment, clothing, preservative, new ingredient and packaging material.
  • Controlled system to handle the food, such as HACCP and GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice).
  • Only safe to eat when its passes all the necessary test and verification from agencies (SIRIM).
  • Food products is safe by the compulsory label displayed on the processed food products as well as some fresh food product.
the changing trends in the selection of diet increase in eating out
The Changing Trends in the Selection of Diet & Increase in Eating Out
  • The types of food we choose:
  • simpler and yet nutritious.
  • prefers white meat and more to carbohydrate.
  • less fattening and healthy.
  • fast to prepare and eaten.
  • Factors that can also determine how a person selects a diet:
  • Emotional
  • Psychological
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Economic
  • Geography
factors that contribute to increase in eating out
Factors that contribute to Increase in Eating Out
  • Both the husband and the wife are working,no time to prepare a proper meal.
  • Increase in dining establishment.
  • The family is getting smaller as well as the kitchen, most of the meal that is being prepared is instant food and processed food.
  • Food is cheaper; a lot of different taste or style to choose.
  • No dishes to wash.
  • Status.
1 2 rules and regulations
  • Food Law, 1983. Act 281:
  • lines up the guideline on the safety and hygiene of the food.
  • Health Ministry:
  • implements the need of Food Handler Course
  • regularly doing spot check on various food service premises.
  • SIRIM:
  • doing research and development of the food products.
  • protect consumers from hazardous poisoning in the food product.
local government
  • The state or city councils: have their own Food and Health Inspector Department.
  • DBKU
  • MBKS
  • MPP
  • DBKL
  • regularly check food production premises to ensure the products and environment is:
  • conditionally healthy
  • hygiene
  • safe
  • fit for human consumption
c the local trade
  • CAP( Consumer Association of Penang)
  • ensuring the level of standard of the food products as well as consumer goods are of high quality.
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • protecting the health of the nation against impure and unsafe foods, drugs and cosmetics, and other potential hazards.
  • develops and administers programs with regards to the safety, composition, quality (including nutritional), and labeling of foods, food additives, colors and cosmetics.
  • publishes documents related to the food service sanitation and enforces mandatory provisions of laws and regulations.
  • publishes list of food additives ad the amount allowed in food products.
u s department of agriculture usda
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • improve food production and strives to cure poverty, hunger, and malnutrition.
  • protect the soil, water, forest and other natural resources.
  • inspection and grading services, safeguards and ensure standard of quality in the daily food supply.
  • inspects meat, meat products, poultry, poultry products, eggs, eggs products, dairy products, fruits and vegetables.
centers for disease control cdc
Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
  • protecting the public through the prevention and control of disease to public health emergencies.
  • located in Atlanta, Georgia.
  • responsible for:
  • determining how the outbreak occurred
  • publishes statically information about the incidents and severity of the illness.
  • supplies educational material, about sanitation.
occupational safety and health act osha
Occupational Safety and Health ACT (OSHA)
  • develops and promotes occupational safety and health standards.
  • develops and issues regulations.
  • conducts investigation and inspections and issues citations.
  • proposes penalties for noncompliance with safety and health standard and regulations.
  • OSHA set standards for a hazard-free working environment, safe equipment, and job procedures with safety in mind.
world health organization who
World Health Organization (WHO)
  • The organization has a range of functions including the following:
  • To act as the directing and co-ordination authority on the international health work.
  • To promote technical co-operation.
  • To assist government, upon request, in strengthening health services.
  • To furnish appropriate technical assistance, in emergencies, necessary aid, upon the request or acceptance of government.
  • To promote and coordinate biomedical and health services research.
  • proposes conventions, agreement and regulation and makes recommendations about international nomenclature, causes of death and public practice.
  • It develops, establishes and promotes international standards concerning food and biological, pharmaceutical and similar substances.
environmental protection agency epa
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • to control and battle pollution of the air, water, solid waste, pesticides, and radiation and toxic substances.
  • Food Agriculture Organization of United State (FAO)
  • A body that do researches on matters that concern on food diseases and agriculture in term of providing food for people.
topic 2 good foods bad food

2.1 Preparing & Serving Food

  • Careful preparation is the key to serving safe food. This includes temperature control and strict compliance with sanitary procedures for cooking, cooling, reheating, holding, and serving foods.
  • Employees must be taught how to minimize the risk of contaminating the food during this time. Through all stages of food preparation and service, monitor:
  • Employee health, personal hygiene and hand washing.
  • Time and temperature control of food.
  • Cleaning and sanitizing of utensils, equipment and all food contact surfaces.
2 2 time and temperature relationship
2.2 Time and Temperature relationship
  • The range between 41˚F (5˚C) to 135˚F (57˚C) is especially dangerous because microorganism grows even more rapidly when the food is this warm.
  • Use accurate thermometer and monitor the temperatures and amount of time that food is kept at various stages of preparation and service.
  • When cooking check the various thickness of the food and the internal temperature of the food as well as the temperature of the unit that is used to do the cooking.
  • Monitoring the internal temperature of the product.
  • Time is another factor, as this will determine dangerous level of the bacterial growth.
2 3 thawing food
2.3 Thawing Food
  • Frozen food must be thawed carefully to prevent contamination and spoilage. NEVER THAW AT ROOM TEMPERATURE.
  • Thaw food:
  • Gradually under refrigeration. The temperature of the food should remain below 5˚C. Use the product as soon as possible after products thaws.
  • By cooking frozen food straight on the stove or in an oven as a continuous process. usually apply with small foods.
  • In a microwave oven. Either to thaw and move to conventional cooking stove/oven or to completely cooks in the microwave.
  • Under potable running water for no more than two hours.
2 4 preparation of menu items
2.4 Preparation of Menu Items
  • During the time that food are being washed, peeled, chopped, mixed or otherwise being prepared, there are many opportunities for the food to become contaminated.
  • Raw and cooked product must be kept separate.
  • Food contact surfaces that have touched raw food have to be cleaned and sanitized before a cooked food touches the same surface.
  • Food contact surfaces :a the parts which normally come into contact with food or from which food may drain, drip, splash or spill into food or onto a surfaces that is normally in contact with food.
  • Chill ingredient before they are used in cold foods
2 5 cooking food
2.5 Cooking Food
  • Always cook foods using the proper equipment.
  • Using a thermometer, check internal cooking and serving temperature of the foods.
  • Check using a proper thermometer on either cooked or chilled food.
  • Take readings only after the indicator stops moving. And always clean and sanitized the thermometer between uses.
  • Poultry and meat that contains stuffing should be cooked to an INTERNAL temperature of 165˚F (73˚C).
  • Beef must be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 130˚F (54˚C).
  • Measure internal temperature in more than one place in the food.
  • Breaded or battered meats must be cooked thoroughly. Check temperature of deep fryer oil and monitor the time allowed for cooking.
2 6 serving food
2.6 Serving Food
  • Hot food should be stored in equipment that keeps them as the required temperature all time.
  • Holding equipment includes steam trays or table, steam kettles, heat lamps and insulated food transport carries.
  • All holding equipment must be able to maintain a temperature above 60˚C. NEVER USE HOLDING EQUIPMENT FOR HEATING FOODS.
  • Avoid holding heated food for long period of time; it may lose its freshness and flavor.
  • Stir food to make certain they remain hot throughout.
  • Cover containers to retain heat and protect food against splash, spillage, and contaminants.
  • Milk and milk products must be kept fresh and sanitary, 5˚C or below for serving and served from the original container.
customer self service
Customer Self-service
  • Self-service operation such as cafeterias, salad bars, smorgasbords and buffet are popular.
  • Keep food wrapped or covered when possible. Condiments are more hygiene when served in individual packages.
  • Placing an easy to clean, properly constructed “sneeze guard” between the customer and the foods.
  • Position serving dishes.
  • Provide enough serving utensils.
  • Store utensil so that food contact surfaces are not touched by the customers.
  • Monitor temperatures of foods: Cold food. Cold, Hot food Hot.
  • Assign employees to monitor and maintain the buffet line.
  • Self-service customer who returns to the service area for additional food should provide them with fresh dishes.
2 7 transporting foods
2.7 Transporting Foods
  • Carry all food, serving equipment and utensils in tightly covered containers or securely wrapped packages.
  • Supply of potable water at the remote site.
  • Keep all food, whether chilled or cooked, at constant, controlled temperature at all times.
  • Use insulated food carries during transport.
  • Pre-chill foods that are to be served cold before transport them. Keep at a temperature of 5°C or below for storage and for service.
  • Hold potentially hazardous food that is to be served hot at a temperature of 60°C or above.
  • Clean and sanitize units used to transport food between uses.
2 8 temporary food service
2.8 Temporary Food Service
  • Food is prepared at the permanent site and transported to temporary unit.
  • Must meet the basic sanitation and safety criteria that permanent establishment maintain.
  • Cold foods and drinks must be kept at 5°C or below.
  • Hot food must be kept at 60°C or above.
  • Potable water must be available in the temporary service site.
2 9 using leftover food
2.9 Using Leftover Food
  • Food that has been exposed to contamination should never be used again.
  • Individual wrapped items with undamaged packaging may be reused.
  • When cooked foods are to be refrigerated and stored for future use, they must be chilled as quickly as possible to an internal temperature of 5˚C or below
  • Select storage containers carefully, especially for highly acidic foods.
  • When re-heating leftovers, bring them quickly to a temperature of 60˚C throughout. If using a microwave one, allow to stand for a few minutes to distribute heat. Do not use steam tables, heat lamps or other holding equipment to heat food.
topic 3 food contamination factors

3.1 Sources of Hazards

  • Foodborne illness is an illness caused by the consumption of a contaminated food.
  • Foodborne outbreak known as an incident in which 2 or more people experience a similar illness after ingesting a common food.
  • Three (3) categories of foodborne illness hazards:
  • Biological Contamination
  • Chemical Contamination
  • Physical Contamination
a)      Biological Contamination
  • Includes bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi.
  • Commonly associated with humans and with raw products entering the food establishment.

b)      Chemical Contamination

  • Toxic substances that may occur naturally or may be added during the processing of food.

c)      Physical Contamination

  • Hard or soft foreign objects in food that can cause illness and injury.
  • They include items such as fragments of glass, metal, jewelry, human hair and so on.
3 1 biological contamination
3.1 Biological Contamination
  • Most food-borne illness comes from contamination by microorganisms that can be spread by the air, through direct contact and through food itself.
  • Four types of microorganisms cause biological contamination in foods:
  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • parasites
  • fungi
Bacteria are classified as either spoilage or pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms.
  • Spoilage bacteria degrade (break down) foods so that they look, taste and smell bad. They reduce the quality of food to unacceptable levels.
  • Pathogenic bacteria are disease-causing microorganisms that can make people ill if they or their toxins are consumed with food.
  • Certain bacteria can take on two forms, a vegetative state and a dormant / spore state.
In the vegetative state:
  • Bacteria are capable of actively reproducing.
  • Consuming the nutrient from the surround areas.
  • Producing waste products and the waste products may be slime, such as formed on meat and fish.
    • Dormant / spore state occur when:
  • The bacteria form thick walls within the cell,
  • Become resistant to heat, and can survive without moisture.
  • High heat and special procedures used in commercial canning or production of dried foods will destroy spores.
  • Home canning procedures are not safe enough for commercial use. Home canned products are not permitted to be used in food establishment.
  • Spores are capable of returning to the vegetative state, multiplying and causing food – borne illness if they are not destroyed.
Bacteria also grow in different shapes as shown in the figures.

First shape group


Second shape group

Spirilla / Spirochetes

Third shape group

  • usually found in watery environments.
  • generally transmitted by swallowing food or water that has been contaminated with feces.
  • The protozoa Cryptosporidium and its relatives Giardia and Cyclospora are now recognized as important causes of diarrhea.
  • Parasites
  • An animal or plant that lives in or on another and from whose body it obtains nourishments.
  • Parasitic Worms
  • most common infections are tapeworms and trichinosis.
  • Infections occur, when poorly cooked or raw meat containing parasite "cysts" is eaten.
  • Three types of tapeworm (Taenia species) associated with raw or undercooked pork, beef, and freshwater fish.
  • Symptoms of tapeworm infection include abdominal pain and loss of weight, hunger, dizziness, and fatigue.
Trichinosis is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from a variety of wild animals, including arctic marine mammals but has been particularly associated with pork and pork products.


  • Any of group of infectious microorganisms that reproduced only in living cells.
  • They cause diseases such as mumps and Hepatitis A virus and can be transmitted through food.
  • Because most viruses are extremely well adapted to their host organism, virus structure varies greatly. However, there are some general structural characteristics that all viruses share.
giardia parasitic worms
GiardiaParasitic Worms




growth and multiplication of bacteria
Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria
  • Bacteria multiply by dividing and producing two identical new cells.
  • Doubling in number every 15-30 minutes, some species of contaminating bacteria quickly reach dangerous levels.

15-30 min

1 minute

bacteria growth curve
Bacteria Growth Curve

No. of bacteria

Stationary phase

Log phase

Decline phase

Lag phase


Time bacteria growth

Lag phase
  • Bacteria exhibit little or no grow. Bacteria adjust to their surroundings.
  • Last only a few hours at room temperature.

Log phase

  • Bacterial growth is very rapidly during the log phase with bacteria doubling in numbers every few minutes

Stationary phase

  • The number of new bacteria being produced equals the number of organisms that are dying off during this phase.
  • The bacteria have used up much of the space, nutrients and moisture in the food by this place of thegrowth curve.

Decline phase

  • Bacteria die off rapidly because they lack nutrients and are poisoned by their own toxic wastes.
Bacteria can survive, and even multiply, in a wide range of conditions and habitats.
  • Much like humans, food poisoning bacteria need warmth, food, moisture, and time to multiply.
  • But unlike humans, not all bacteria need air (Oxygen).
warmth temperature
Warmth / Temperature
  • Keeping food out of the danger zone is one of the key rules for safe food handling.

Danger zones

  • Grow and multiply at temperatures between 41˚F (5˚C) to 135˚F (57˚C) with an optimum the same as that of the human body - 98°F (37°C).
  • Referred to as the food Temperature Danger Zone. Bacterial growth and multiplication begins to slow down when temperatures rise or fall from the ideal range of 70°F to 120°F (21°C to 49°C).
  • Careful monitoring of time and temperature is the most effective way a to control the growth of disease-causing and spoilage bacteria.
  • Temperature abuse is the term applied when allowing foods to remain in the temperature danger zone 41˚F (5˚C) to 135˚F (57˚C) for an unacceptable period of time. This could result in a foodborne illness.
dead zone
Dead zone
  • The temperature needed to kill cells will vary with the type of bacteria, the length of time it is exposed to high temperatures, and even the food involved. It may take ten minutes or more to kill some bacteria by pasteurization at 163°F (73°C) or by boiling at 212°F (100°C).
  • Some spores can survive boiling for as long as four hours.
  • Some are also unharmed by chemical disinfectants.
  • Normal cooking or disinfecting may not be enough to kill them and may also survive many years in the environment. When growth conditions become more favorable, spores germinate, grow, and multiply.
Dormant Zone
  • Bacterial growth and multiplication become progressively slower as the temperature drops into the dormant zone.
  • Most food poisoning bacteria stop growing at domestic refrigerator temperatures of between 35°F and 40°F (20°C to 5°C), but they are still alive.
food moisture
Food & moisture

·The food that best supports bacterial growth includes those with a lot of protein and moisture, such as meat.

  • Salmonella are more likely to be found in raw foods such as meat, poultry and eggs.
  • Clostridium prefers cooked and reheated foods such as stews and gravies.
  • Staphylococci, which often originate on human skin, are commonly spread by a food handler who has handled the food and then left it at room temperature for a while before consumption.
  • Bacillus and its spores survive on grains and cereals, ready to spring to life in the right conditions.
Dried foods such as infant formula and powdered milk, eggs and soups not necessarily free of bacteria and dormant spores.
  • By adding water, there is a possibility that any bacteria present will revive and begin to grow and multiply. To avoid problems with reconstitute dried foods:

1. If possible, consume the food immediately after reconstituting it.

2. Only make up what you can use immediately, thus avoiding the need to store the food.

3. Keep reconstituted food out of the danger zone by keeping it piping hot if you are going to eat it soon; if you cannot eat it right away, refrigerate it as soon as it cool.

4. Always keep the food covered.

  • Given the right combination of food, moisture and a temperature of 98oF (37oC), bacteria can divide very rapidly.
  • Given enough time, just a few bacteria can multiply to dangerous levels.
  • Given all the right combination, within three hours there will be 1 million bacteria present on a food product, by the time four hours have passed, the number will increased to over 4 million.
air for breathing oxygen
Air for breathing (oxygen)
  • Bacteria that need oxygen for growth are called Aerobes.
  • Bacteria that live in the absence of oxygen are called Anaerobes.Example: Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism.
  • Facultative Bacteria, can grow either with or without oxygen. Example :Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Microaerophilic Bacteria, can grow in only a small amount of atmospheric oxygen usually in range of 3% to 6%.
water activity ph
Water activity & pH
  • The amount of water for bacterial growth is called the water activity (Aw). The food must have Aw level of 0.85 or higher (Aw 0.97 to 0.99).
  • Able to grow in a neutral with a little acidic atmosphere,
  • Food that contained a high acidic contain are not suitable and can destroy bacteria. These include water with some element of salt in it.
six condition bacteria need to multiply
Six Condition Bacteria Need To Multiply

F- FOOD (high in protein or carbohydrates)

  • High in protein or carbohydrates like meats, poultry, seafood, dairy products and cooked rice, beans and potatoes.

A-ACIDITY (grow best when the food it lives on has a pH of 4.6 to 7.0)

  • Very acid foods (pH below 4.6), like lemons, limes and tomatoes will not normally support the growth of disease-causing bacteria.
T-TEMPERATURE (can grow within a temperature range of 41˚F (5˚C) to 135˚F (57˚C).

A) Psychrophilic bacteria:(32˚F (0˚C) to 70˚F (21˚C).

Capable of multiplying at both refrigerated and room temperatures, spoilage organisms but some can cause disease.

B) Mesophilic (middle range) bacteria between:70˚F (21˚C) to 110˚F (43˚C) with most rapid growth at human body temperature 98.6˚F (37˚C).

C) Thermophilicbacteria : above 110˚F (43˚C). All thermophilic bacteria are spoilage organisms.

T- TIME (need about 4 hours to grow to high enough numbers under ideal conditions and cause illness.)
  • Bacterial cells can double in number every 15 to 30 minutes.

O- OXYGEN (depending on the type of bacteria, some can survive only with oxygen, some only without oxygen, some with or without oxygen, some with Oxygen with very limited amounts).

M-MOISTURE (grow in foods that have a water activity higher than 0.85)
  • Water activity (Aw) is a measure of the amount of water that is not bound to the food and measure on scale from 0-1.0.
  • Aw from 0-0.85: Dry Noodles, Dry Rice and Pasta, Flour, Uncut Fruits and vegetables, Jam and Jellies, Solidly Frozen Foods
  • Aw from 0.85-1.0: Dairy products, poultry and eggs, meats, fish and shellfish, cut melons and sprouts, Steamed rice and pasta.
Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)
  • A food that is natural or man-made capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious and toxin-producing microorganisms.
  • PHF usually high in protein or carbohydrates and have a pH above 4.6 and water activity above 0.85.
  • Examples of PHF are red meats, poultry and raw shell eggs, fish and shellfish and dairy products, cooked rice or potatoes and refried beans.

Ready-to-Eat Foods

  • Ready-to-eat foods are food items that are edible without washing, cooking or additional preparation by consumer or by the food establishment.
  • They include raw or processed products that can be eaten immediately. Examples:
  • Cheeses and luncheon meats, fruits and vegetables, salad items, hot dogs and hard-boiled eggs.
3 2 chemical contamination
3.2 Chemical Contamination
  • Associated with substances such as food additives and preservative, pesticides, toxic metal and toxic cleaning products.
  • Food Additives
  • Enhance the flavor of food products or keep them fresh longer.
  • Nitrites, sulfites and monosodium glutamate (MSG) can make some people extremely ill, especially those with asthma.
  • Pesticides
  • Used on crops to control insect damage.
  • Poisoning due to pesticides is usually a result of carelessness or poor housekeeping procedures.
  • Toxic Metals
  • Copper, brass, cadmium, lead and zinc can be a source of chemical contamination.
  • Toxic Housekeeping Products
  • Improper storage and use of cleaning agents, sanitizers and other substances
  • Keep only those chemicals needed for cleaning, sanitizing and pest control. Store in designated places.
3 3 physical contamination
3.3 Physical Contamination
  • Physical contamination occurs when objects such as glass, hair, nails, jewelry, or metal fragments, or even dirt become mixed with food.
  • The use of broken or worn utensils and equipment.
  • Improper ventilation and poorly maintained facilities.
  • Plumbing pipes can drop moisture, metal, paint or dirt into food or onto food preparation surfaces.

3.4 Cross Contamination

  • The transfer of germs from 1 food item to another food.
  • Happens when germs from raw food are transferred to a cooked or ready-to-eat food via contaminated hands, equipments or utensils.
  • Therefore, it is extremely important to:
  • Always store cooked and ready-to-eat over raw products.
  • Keep raw and ready-to-eat foods separate during storage.
  • Use good personal hygiene and hand washing.
  • Keep all food-contact surfaces clean and sanitary.
  • Avoid bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods.
transmission of organism or contamination
Transmission of Organism or Contamination
  • The presence of substances or conditions in the food that can be harmful to humans.
  • Bacteria and viruses post the greatest food safety challenges for all retail food establishment.
  • Many types of food contamination can cause illness without changing the appearance, odor or taste of food.

Source of food contamination:

  • Ingredients
  • Air
  • Water
  • Soil
  • Foods handlers
  • Packaging materials
  • Animals, rodents and insects
  • Food contact surfaces
topic 4 prevention of food contamination


Walls and Ceilings

  • sealed or covered with smooth, nonabsorbent materials so they are easy to clean.
  • painted in a light color.
  • to distribute light that makes soil easier to see and permits thorough cleaning and sanitary food preparation.
  • smooth and properly constructed of durable, nonabsorbent materials.
  • the floor and wall must be coved and sealed.
  • Coving is a curved sealed edge between the floor and wall that eliminates sharp corners or gaps.
  • should meet the same standards.
  • easy to clean and maintained in good repair.
  • Anti-slip floor coverings should be used.
  • Floor that are regularly cleaned with water or where water is spilled should be sealed and in good repair.
  • installed floor drains with traps.
  • Light fixture, vent covers, wall-mounted fans, decorative materials and similar equipment attached to walls and ceilings should be easy to clean and kept in good repair.
  • Plumbing fixtures must not interfere with proper cleaning of floors, walls or ceiling.
  • Electric wires and plumbing pipes should not be exposed in food handling or storage areas.
  • have enough bright light.
  • Allows food workers to read and identify labels and color.
  • To inspect the condition of foods during storage, preparation and serving.
  • Light bulbs should be shielded, coated or otherwise shatter resistant.
  • Infrared or other heat lamps must also have covers.
  • removes smoke, odors, moisture and greasy vapor.
  • should be of the right size and located where they work well without causing drafts.
  • installed and operated according to state rules.
  • should not bother the neighborhood.
  • If filters are used,they must be easy to take out.
  • Ventilation hoods should be kept in good working order, clean and inspect them regularly.
outdoor maintenance
Outdoor Maintenance
  • should be kept free from litters and old, unused equipment.
  • Areas where customers walk should be level and smooth.
  • Driveways should be covered with concrete, asphalt, gravel.
  • should be sloped so that water does not collect in pools.
4 2 sewage and drainage

Water Supply

  • The work of a food service establishment depends on a steady supply of potable water.
  • Hand washing
  • Washing, spraying, dipping and soaking produce
  • Preparing and cooking foods.
  • Cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and utensils
  • Ice making
  • Preparing beverages
  • Grinding garbage
  • Thawing frozen foods
  • Flushing toilets
  • Water under pressure should be provided.
  • Pipes must be constructed of sturdy, leak-proof materials.

Sinks and Drains

  • the sink must have at least three compartments.
  • large enough to immerse the largest equipment and utensils.
  • supplied with hot and cold potable water.
  • properly connected to the drainage system.
  • have drain-boards or easily moveable dish table.
  • Floor drains with traps should be installed.
  • should flow into the public sewer system or a disposal system constructed and operated according to law.


Cleaning Procedures for Floors and Walls:

  • Clean floors and walls when the least amount of food is out in the open, such as after closing or between meals times.
  • Use only dustless method of cleaning.
  • Use detergent, scrubbing and rinsing to remove dirt and grease.
  • Post warning signs if floor must be wet.
  • Wipe up spills immediately.
floor drain




topic 5 symptoms complications of food poisoning

The Number of Germs Needed To Cause Illness


Numberof Germ


Staphylococcus Aureus

Clostidum Perfringens

Bacillus Cereus


Vibro Parahaemolyticus

Vibro Cholerae


Eschenchia Coli Enteropathogenic (E.coli)

Parasitic Protozoa

One to less that 500 thousand cells *

One to one million cells

One million cells

More than one million cells

One million cells

500 thousand to one million cells

One million cells

10 to one hundred cells

One to 1000 cells

One to 30 cells

  • For babies and elderly one to ten cells

Food Borne Illness






Toxin from Living Organism





Molds (Fungi)



Toxic-mediated infection

Long-term symptoms is called chronic illness is usually cause by infection of germ usually over a long period of time.
  • The short-term symptoms from food borne illness are called acute illness and can be categorize as gastroenteritis, neurology and infections.
  • Foodborne illness is the sickness that some people experience when they eat contaminated food.
  • Most cases of foodborne illness in retail food establishments are caused by foods that have been:
  • Exposed to unsafe temperatures.
  • Handled by infected food workers who practice poor personal hygiene.
  • Exposed to disease-causing agents by contamination and cross contamination.
Foodborne illness is generally classified as a foodborne infection, intoxication or toxin-mediated infection.
  • Infection: caused by eating food that contains living disease-causing microorganisms. Example is Salmonella
  • Intoxication: caused by eating food that contains a harmful chemical or toxin produced by bacteria or other source. Example is Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus
  • Toxin-mediated infection: caused by eating a food that contains harmful microorganisms that will produced a toxin once inside the human body.
  • Foodborne illnesses have different onset times. The onset time is the number of hours between the time a person eats contaminated food and when they first show symptoms of the disease.
5 1 variety of illness
  • Symptoms vary depending on the germ or poison it produces, and where in the body the attack takes place and on the health of the victims.
  • An attack on the digestive passage, for example will probably include combinations of the following symptoms:
  • Diarrhea, sometimes with blood, mucus or bile presents
  • Nausea (Feeling Sick)
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Fever (high temperatures usually accompanied by sweats & chills
  • Stomach pains and/or cramps
  • Dizziness
here is some complication that occurs following the initial illness
Here is some complication that occurs following the initial illness:
  • Blood poisoning (septicemia)
  • Swelling of the muscles around the heart and damage to the heart valves and blood vessels.
  • Swelling of the brain tissue (meningitis)
  • Damage to bones and joints including a type of arthritis
  • Damage to kidneys and liver and other vital organs, E.Coli
  • Paralysis associated with Campylobacter infection.
  • Pneumonia
  • Abortion (death to the fetus a permanent impairment to the baby).
  • Damaged brain function (e.g.) Memory loss.
5 2 course of an infection recovery carriers immunity
  • Several factors influence the ability of a germ or its toxin to attack the body. These include:
  • the ability of the body's defense systems to fight off the attack.
  • the type and dose off germs taken.
  • the type of food in which the germ is hiding.
  • They have to go through some security system that the human body has. These security systems have the level:
  • External senses: the eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Physical and chemical barriers: tissues lining the digestive passage and stomach acids.
  • Internal attack system:The body's immune system and some enzymes and bile acids.
5 3 bacteria food infection
5.3 Bacteria Food Infection
  • Food infection is caused by eating food that content living harmful bacteria.
  • After ingestion, the organism burrows into the lining of the victim’s digestive tract and begins to grow in number.
  • Sometimes, the microbes may spread to other parts of the body through the blood stream.
  • Common type of infectious bacterial are:
  • Salmonella causes salmonellosis
  • Shigella causes shigellosis
  • E.Coli cause Escherichia coli 0156:H7
  • Yersinis causes yersiniosis
  • Listeria causes listeriosis
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
5 4 bacteria food intoxication
5.4 Bacteria Food Intoxication
  • Food intoxication caused by eating food that contains harmful chemical or toxin produced by bacteria or other source.
  • May also occur when an individual consumes food that contains man-made chemicals such as cleaning agents or pesticides.
  • Common type of toxic produce bacterial are:
  • Staphyloccus aureus
  • Basillus cereus
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Clostridium perfringens
5 5 seafood toxins
  • Some fish and shellfish can be poisonous.
  • Scombroid poisoning: occurs when fish as tuna, mackerel, bluefish, mahi-mahi and amberjack have begun to spoil.
  • Ciguatera poisoning: Large fish are more likely to contain ciguatera toxins from the marine life they eat.


  • Plants which are poisonous include water hemlock, fava beans, rhubard leaves and jimson weed.
topic 6 purchasing food


  • The main objectives of an effective purchasing program are to:
  • Buy the product that is best suited for the job.
  • Buy the proper quantity of the item.
  • Pay the right price for the item.
  • Deal with only reputable and dependable supplies.
6 1 things to consider when purchasing food
6.1 Things To Consider When Purchasing Food

All food must be carefully inspected and correctly stored to ensure their highest quality and to protect them from contamination and deterioration.

  • Food products used in food service establishments must be obtained from reliable source.
  • Choose suppliers who are known to sell clean, fresh, uncontaminated food products.
  • Food processing plants with quality assurance and/or HACCP programs in approved by the appropriate regulatory agency.
  • Food prepared in a private home must not be used or offered for sale in a food service establishment.
6 2 inspection of purchased food
  • Have deliveries schedule during slow periods.
  • Check the condition of the delivery truck to determine how the food was protected during shipping.
  • Non-food items should not be included in shipment with food products.
  • Check temperature of the food received for refrigerated and freeze item.
  • Reject packages that are damaged, patched or taped shut.
  • Take out some sample randomly and examine the content.
  • Check for cross-contamination occurrence.
  • Reject any shipment that is not up to standard.
receiving fresh food
Receiving Fresh Food
  • Fresh meat-should be firm and elastic to touch and have characteristic aromas.
  • Poultry-discolored or has darkened wing tips or sticky skin should be rejected.
  • Fish-packed on self-draining.
  • Vegetable and Fruits- Purchase from approved sources and wash them thoroughly.
receiving processed food
Receiving Processed Food
  • Fluid Milk- received cold and refrigerated immediately, marked with an expiration date and the name,check the expiration date before using them.
  • Cheese- inspected color, flavor and moisture content and reject if it contains mold that is not a normal part of the cheese or if package is damaged.
  • Butter-firm texture, ever color and is free of mold.
  • Frozen Foods -must be solidly frozen and look for signs that the product has been thawed and refrozen.Temperature of frozen foods can be checked by inserting the sensing portion of a thermometer between 2 packages.
modified atmosphere packaging map
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
  • A process whereby foods are placed in containers and air is removed from the package.
  • Different gases, such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide are then added to the package food to preserve it.
  • Processors of sous-vide (without air) foods seal raw ingredients often-entire recipes in plastic pouches and then vacuum out the air.
  • Refrigerated constantly.
  • Food must be heated according to the time and temperature provided on the package directions.
6 3 proper storage system
  • The 3 most common types of food storage areas are the refrigerator, freezer and dry storage
  • Refrigerated storage is use to hold potentially hazardous and perishable foods for relatively short periods of time usually a few days
  • Freezer storage is used to hold foods for longer periods of time, usually a few weeks to several months
  • Dry storage is typically used to store less perishable items and foods that are not potentially hazardous foods.
important procedures for cold storage
Important procedures for cold storage
  • Rotate refrigerated and frozen foods on a First In, First Out (FIFO) basis(older foods are used first).
  • Store foods in refrigerated and freezer storage areas at least 6 inches off the floor.
  • Store raw products under cooked or ready-to-eat foods to prevent cross contamination.
  • When storing raw animal foods, always store poultry on the bottom shelf, ground beef and pork on the middle shelf and fish, eggs and other red meat products on the top shelf.
dry storage area
Dry Storage area
  • To store foods that is usually packaged in cans, bottles, jars and bags.
  • Moderate room temperature of 50˚F (10˚C) to 70˚F (21˚C).
  • Slatted shelves at least 6 inches off the floor and away from the wall. The 6-inch clearance permits thorough cleaning under and behind the shelving.
  • Product should be spaced on the shelves so that air can circulate around them.
  • Properly coded or dated and labeled with the common name of the food.
topic 7 prevention of food poisoning in the kitchen

7.1 Employee Health

  • Everyone who handles food should be healthy.
  • Employee who shows signs of illness should be reassigned or sent home until they are no longer sick.
  • Food contamination can occur when the food handler gets cut while working with food.
  • The handler must cover the wound with a water-resistant bandage.
  • Bandages should be changed often and covered with water-resistant material or plastic gloves may be worn.
  • Burns must also be covered with a water-resistant bandage and plastic gloves may be worn.
7 2 personal hygiene
7.2 Personal Hygiene
  • Daily bathe with soap & water and arrive at work clean.
  • Covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing and wash hands before handling food.
  • Eliminate unsanitary habits, such as scratching the head or touching the mouth or nose.
  • Eating, drinking, and tobacco use in any form should be prohibited during food preparation or cleaning.
  • Smoking, eating and chewing gum are sources of droplet contamination. Blowing bubbles or touching the gum with your fingers is prohibited.
  • No employee should resume work after eating, drinking or smoking without first thoroughly washing his or her hands.
7 3 hand washing
7.3 Hand Washing
  • Most microorganisms that cause food-borne illness are transmitted to foods by the hands of food service workers.
  • The basic practice of hand washing is perhaps the most important action you can take to prevent the spread of disease.
  • A hand washing station must be equipped with:
  • Hot and cold running water under pressure,
  • Dispenser containing liquid or powdered soap and
  • Individual disposable towels and mechanical hot-air dryers.
steps for hand washing
Steps for Hand Washing
  • Use warm running water.
  • Wet hands and arms up to the elbows.
  • Apply soap or detergent.
  • Rub hands and forearms briskly for at least 15 – 20 seconds to build up a good lather. Scrub between fingers and clean nails.
  • Rinse thoroughly under running water.
  • Dry hands and arms using a single service towel or hot air dryer.
7 4 clothing
7.4 Clothing
  • Dirty clothing present two problems: odor and contamination by bacteria.
  • Dirt can enter the establishment on employee’s shoes or clothing.
  • Teach your employee the important of clean clothing on the job.
  • There should be a locker room or other suitable changing area.
  • Smocks and aprons help to reduce transfer of microbes to exposed food.
  • Hats, hair coverings or nets and beard restraints discourage workers from touching their hair or beard.
topic 8 hazard analysis critical control point haccp

8.1 Principle in HACCP systems

Safety Assurance through HACCP

  • The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is presented as a program of monitoring and adjusts procedures designed to protect food from becoming contaminated before it is served.
  • Combined principle of food microbiology, quality control and risk assessment to obtain as nearly as possible a fail-safe system.
  • A method to promote food safety.
  • Focuses more on the process of preparing and providing safe food.
  • HACCP is an organized system that requires planning, implementing and ongoing evaluation.
8 2 introduction to the haccp system
  • The following points must be remembered when starting the HACCP system:
  • Education and Motivation
  • Managers, supervisors and employees must understand the HACCP system because the program is dependent on the commitment of ALL personnel.
  • The Operational Steps
  • The design of the physical and operational workflow will need to be adapted to have the right personnel and equipment in the right place to accomplish the goal: SAFE FOOD!
  • Motivate and Involve Employees
  • Set up a program to improve the quality and safety of the products.
8 3 hazard analysis
  • The “H” of HACCP system refers to the hazards that can cause food borne illness. A hazard is:
  • unacceptable contamination (biological, chemical or physical),
  • unacceptable growth or survival of microorganisms that affect safety or spoilage or
  • unacceptable production or persistence in foods or products microbiological activity.
10 most frequent hazards
10 Most Frequent Hazards
  • Improper cooling procedures
  • Prolong holding or prepared food
  • Poor personal hygiene
  • Failure to rapidly reheat food before serving
  • Improper hot holding
  • Contaminate raw food or ingredients
  • Use of food from an unapproved source
  • Improper cleaning of equipment and utensils
  • Cross contamination from raw to cooked food
  • Inadequate cooking
  • The “A” of HACCP stands for analysis.
  • All menu item recipes can be broken into a list of ingredients, things to do, times, temperatures etc.
  • The knowledge of the following risk factors will help the manager in HACCP analysis:
  • Properties of food.
  • Food processing/preparation that food will undergo.
  • Volume of food prepared.
  • Type of customer to be served.
8 4 critical control points ccp
  • Define as a point, step or procedures at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.
  • Points in food preparation that may be CCPs include cooking, chilling, specific sanitation procedures, cross contamination and employee hygiene.
  • Identified separately for each item recipe.
  • Differ depending on whether the item is to be served hot or cold, the ingredients are potentially hazardous and whether human hands are involved in the preparation.
  • A step in the process can be a simple control point where a biological, physical or chemical hazard can be controlled.
the haccp system

Contact a hazard analysis

Determine the critical control points (CCP)

Establish Critical Limits (thresholds)

Establish procedures to monitor CCPs.

Establish corrective actions.

Establish procedures to verify that the HACCP system is working.

Establish effective record keeping and documentation procedures.

Reviews the ingredients, the final product and its method of storage.
  • Develops a list of potential biological, chemical or physical hazards.
  • A specified heat process at a given time and temperature designed to destroy a specific microbiological pathogen could be a CCP.
  • Different facilities preparing similar food items can differ in the hazards identified and the steps, due to differences in each facility’s layout, equipment, selectionof ingredients, processes employed, etc.
A critical limit is a maximum and/or minimum value to which a biological, chemical or physical parameter must be controlled at a CCP.
  • Factors such as: temperature, time, physical dimensions, humidity, moisture level, water activity (Aw), pH, salt concentration, available chlorine, preservatives or sensory information such as aroma and visual appearance.
  • Example:cooking of beef patties (internal patty temperature of 155˚F and hold for 16 seconds as critical limits.
  • Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for future use in verification.
  • Corrective actions is to prevent foods, which may be hazardous from reaching consumers.
  • Verification is defined as those activities, other than monitoring that determine the validity of the HACCP plan and that the system is operating according to the plan.
HACCP Plan Summary Table that includes information for:
  • Steps in the process that is CCPs.
  • The hazard(s) of concern.
  • Critical limits.
  • Monitoring.
  • Corrective actions.
  • Verification procedures and schedule.
  • Record-keeping procedures.
chapter 9 washing sanitizing

Cleaning: The physical removal of soil and food residues from surfaces of equipment and utensils.

Factors Affecting Cleaning Efficiency

  • Type of soil to be removed
  • Water quality
  • The detergent or cleaner to be used (soaps, alkaline and acid detergents, degreasers, abrasives and detergent sanitizers)
  • Water temperature between 130˚F (54˚C) and 160˚F (71˚C)
  • Water velocity or force
  • Time detergent remains in contact with the surface
  • The concentration of cleaner.
  • The treatment of a surface that has been previously cleaned to reduce the number of disease-causing microorganisms to safe levels.
  • Heat and chemical are the 2 types of sanitizers most commonly used in food establishment.
  • Sanitizers destroy disease-causing organisms, which may be present on equipment and utensils even after cleaning.
  • Sanitization is not sterilization because some bacterial spores and a few highly resistant vegetative cells generally survive.
9 1 washing sanitizing procedures
  • Scrape or soak equipment and utensils to remove large food particles and dirt.
  • The temperature of the wash solution should be maintained at not less than 43°C unless a different temperature is specified on the cleaning agent label’s instructions.
  • Rinse utensils in clean, hot water until they are free of all detergents and abrasives.
  • To sanitize utensils, immerse them in an approved chemical and water solution at a temperature of at least 24°C for I minute or more.
9 2 washing products
9.2 Washing Products

Three main groups of washing products:


  • Used with water to break down dirt.
  • Contain surfactants (agents) that dissolve in water and spread by means of suds.
  • Not very expensive and the most effective all-purpose cleaning products.

Acid cleaners

  • Work by loosening the heavier dirt that alkaline-based detergent cannot remove.
  • May cause damage surfaces and cause chemical burns on skins.

Abrasive cleaners

  • Contain ground minerals that scour the surface to remove encrusted soil
  • Rinse away all after scrubbing.
9 3 sanitizing products
9.3 Sanitizing Products

Sanitizing products can be categorized as:

Hot water sanitizing

  • Temperature at least 77°C.
  • All equipment and utensils must be completely held under the water for at least 30 seconds to sanitize.

Chemical sanitizing

  • Sanitizers designed to destroy microorganisms.
  • Chlorine: work well in soft or hard water and cause damage to metal equipment. Water temperature should be 24°C.
  • Iodine:work well in hard water and useful for rubber or metal surfaces. Water temperature (between 24°C and 49°C).
  • Quaternary ammonium: work well in hard water and also both acid and alkali solutions. Water temperature should be 24°C.

Concentration of sanitizers

  • Min 50 parts per million (ppm):chlorine + water.
  • Min 12.5 ppm:iodine + water. (pH below 5.0)
  • Min 200 ppm: quaternary ammonium + water.
factors that affect the action of chemical sanitizers
Factors that affect the action of chemical sanitizers
  • Contact of sanitizer
  • In order for a chemical to react with microorganisms, it must achieve intimate contact.
  • Selectivity of sanitizer
  • Certain sanitizers are nonselective (chlorine) in their ability to destroy microorganisms, whereas others exhibit a degree of selectivity.
  • Concentration of sanitizer
  • Always follow the manufacturer’s label use instructions to ensure peak effectiveness of chemical sanitizers.
  • Temperature of solution
  • Water temperatures for chemical sanitizing solutions is between 75˚F (24˚C) and 120˚F (49˚C)
  • pH of solution
  • Quaternary compounds react differently to changing pH, depending on the type of organism being destroyed
  • Time of exposure
  • Depends on the preceding factors as well as the size of the microbial populations and their susceptibility to the sanitizer.
9 4 pest control
  • All food establishments must have a pest control program.
  • It takes a combination of 3 separate activities to keep pests in check. You must:
  • Prevent entry of insects and rodents into the establishment.
  • Eliminate food, water and places where insects and rodents can hide.
  • Implement an integrated pest management program to control insect and rodent pests that enter the establishment.
The best way to keep pests out is by making sure they cannot get in at the first place.
  • Doors must close automatically and tight fit.
  • All windows, doors, skylights, intake and exhaust air-ducts and other opening to the outside must have screens.
  • Store food supplies properly, clean and sanitize regularly, and dispose of trash frequently.
  • Types of pests ranging from Cockroaches, Ants, House flies and other flying insects, beetles, rats and mice (rodent) and birds.
  • The term “domestic” rodents include Norway rats, roof rats and house mice.
  • Norway rat:a burrowing rat, hides in in the ground, around buildings and in sewers.
  • Roof rat: smaller than Norway rat, very agile climber, harbors in the upper floors of buildings, sometimes in sewers.
  • House mouse: the smallest,found in and around buildings, nesting in walls, cabinets and stored goods.
The presence of rat or mouse feces is one of the best indications of an infestation.
  • Norway ray droppings: the largest and have rounded ends and like black jelly beans.
  • Roof rat droppings: smaller and more regular in form.
  • The house mouse’s droppings: very small and pointed at each end.
rat or mouse feces
Rat or Mouse feces


House mouse


rodent control
Rodent Control
  • Effective rodent control begins with a building and grounds that will not provide a source of food, shelter and breeding areas.
  • Storing trash and garbage in approved-type containers with tight-fitting lids.
  • Buildings and foundations should be constructed to prevent rodent entry.
  • Traps are useful around food establishments where rodenticides are not permitted or are hazardous.
integrated pest management ipm
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • IPM is a system that uses a combination of sanitation, mechanical and chemical procedures to control pests.
  • Step program for IPM:
  • Inspection
  • Identification
  • Sanitation
  • Application of 2 or more pest management procedures.
  • Evaluation of effectiveness through follow-up inspection.
topic 10 safety first aid procedures


  • Every employee needs to be trained in proper procedures to use, operate and clean equipment.
  • To avoid accidents, observe the employees at work to make sure that they are being careful.
safety procedures
Safety Procedures
  • To prevent falls
  • Keep floors and mats clean and dry, in good repair and free from trash and other obstacles.
  • After cleaning and mopping floors, use “caution” or “wet floor” signs.
  • Use anti-slip mats to cover areas that have high traffic and are frequently wet.
  • Provide adequate lighting in all areas.
  • If someone falls, ask him/her to stay still, and then determine the extent of injury.
  • Seek medical assistance if there is a question about the victim’s ability to move.
2 to prevent burns
2. To prevent burns
  • Remove lids from pots, pans and kettles carefully, allowing steam to escape away from the face and the hand.
  • Use dry, flameproof potholders.
  • Turn the handles of pans inwards on the range so that pans cannot be knocked off.
  • Move heavy or hot containers with enough help and know where the containers are going before picking them up.
  • Beware of the hot edges of ranges, ovens and broilers.
3 to prevent cuts
3. To prevent cuts
  • Keep knives sharp and store them separately.
  • Never leave knives on counters or submerged in a sink full of soapy water.
  • Always use the proper tool for the task.
  • Do not try to catch a falling knife.
  • Do not try to clean the circular blade of slicer while the equipment is still assembled.
  • Always cut away from the body, not toward it.
  • Do not reach blindly for the knife.
  • Wash all sharp tools separately from other utensils.
  • Throw out broken glass and utensils in special containers to prevent cuts.
handling special equipment
Handling Special Equipment
  • Cutters and Choppers
  • Be sure that all parts are properly installed and that safety guards are in place before operating these machines.
  • Use rubber or spatula to remove food.
  • Store blades and other parts so that accidental cuts or contamination do not occur.
  • Slicers
  • Keep hands away from the blade.
  • Follow special safety procedures for machines with a power feed.
  • Protect your hands with cut-resistant mesh gloves when cleaning slicer.
3 grinders
3. Grinders
  • Use a feed stomper and keep all guards in place when machine is on.
  • Keep fingers away from the feed screw.
  • Turn grinder off, disconnect and wait for machine to completely stop before cleaning grinders.
  • Disposal units
  • Do not use tampers, hands or other devices in food disposals.
  • Use a guard so that silverware does not get into the disposal.
  • Turn off the machine before removing trapped metal or cloths.
10 2 first aids procedures food poisoning
  • Post telephone numbers for emergency services, including doctors, the fire department, ambulances, poison control and the health department near the phone.
  • An injured employee must not handle food again until the wound is properly treated.
  • Stay calm
  • Quickly decide on whether or not to call for help
  • Make the accident victim as comfortable as possible
  • Administer first aid according to the type of problem – cuts, burns or falls and consult first aid guide for instructions.
  • Write the victim’s name, the date and time of accident, type of injury or illness, treatment and how long it took for any assistant to arrive
food poisoning
  • Most food poisoning occurs at home but it is also commonly linked to restaurants, snack bars, institutions, schools and large social gathering, such as reception.
  • If you have symptoms of diarrhea or vomiting, DO NOT prepares food for other people.
  • Few suggestions about what to do:
  • Mild Symptoms
  • Drinking plenty of water helps to replace loss through diarrhea, vomiting and sweating.
  • Severe Symptoms and High Risk People
  • Send them to the nearest hospital. High-risk group are infants, young children, elderly people, pregnant women, AIDS patients, people with serious illness and depresses immunity.