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“Who killed the electric car?” (is it really dead???). Ramon Sanchez. Harvard University December 19, 2007. Outline. Early history of motor vehicles Description of gasoline engines Description of diesel engines Electric engines in motor vehicles. Outline. Hybrid technologies

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who killed the electric car is it really dead

“Who killed the electric car?”(is it really dead???)

Ramon Sanchez.

Harvard University

December 19, 2007

outline
Outline
  • Early history of motor vehicles
  • Description of gasoline engines
  • Description of diesel engines
  • Electric engines in motor vehicles

Slide # 2

outline1
Outline
  • Hybrid technologies
  • Evolution of battery technologies
  • How the electric car was “killed” (and why)

Slide # 3

early history of cars
Early History of Cars
  • 1769, the very first car was built by Nicolas Cugnot
  • 1807, the very first “internal combustion engine” was built by Francois Isaac de Rivaz
  • 1860, the first successful two stroke internal combustion engine was patented by Joseph Etiene Lenoir

Slide # 4

early history of cars1
Early History of Cars

1862, the first four stroke Otto Engine (gasoline) was invented

  • 1865, Car development is delayed by the “Locomotives on Highways (Red Flag Act)”
  • 1870, the first electric car was developed by David Salomon
  • 1892, the first direct compression engine was developed by Rudolph Diesel

Slide # 5

slide6

The Otto Cycle Spark-ignition Engine

N. A.Otto (1831 - 1891), from Holzhausen, Germany, developed the four-stroke cycle engine in a series of experiments dating from 1862. Together with Eugen Langen he founded the first engine company - "N.A.Otto & Cie". In 1867 they won a gold medal at the Paris Exposition.

Nicolaus August Otto

http://techni.tachemie.uni-leipzig.de/otto/otto_g0_eng.html#takte

Slide # 6

slide7

An 1876 Version of Otto’s Engine

http://techni.tachemie.uni-leipzig.de/otto/otto_g0_eng.html#takte

Slide # 7

slide8

Parts of the Spark-ignition Engine

IV = intake valve

SP = spark plug

EV = exhaust valve

PR = piston ring

P = piston

CR = connecting rod

CS = crank shaft

http://techni.tachemie.uni-leipzig.de/otto/otto_g0_eng.html#takte

Slide # 8

slide9

The Otto Cycle - intake stroke

http://techni.tachemie.uni-leipzig.de/otto/otto_g0_eng.html#takte

Slide # 9

slide10

The Diesel Cycle Compression-ignition Engine

After studying the internal combustion engines developed by Nikolaus Otto, Diesel conceived of an engine that would approach the thermodynamic limit established by Sadi Carnot in 1824. If the fuel in a cylinder could be expanded at constant pressure, it could get closer to Carnot's limit. He patented the concept in 1892, while working at the firm of Carl von Linde in Berlin.

Dr.Rudolf Diesel

b 1858 Paris,. Educated at Munich Polytechnic Inst.. d1913, English Channel

http://world.std.com/~jlr/doom/diesel.htm

Slide # 10

slide13

Diesel versus Gasoline

The Energy Advantage

Diesel fuel has a higher energy density than gasoline. On average, a gallon of Diesel fuel contains approximately 155x106 joules (147,000 BTUs), while a gallon of gasoline contains 132x106 joules (125,000 BTUs). This, combined with the improved efficiency of Diesel engines, explains why Diesel engines get better mileage than equivalent gasoline engines (30-40 % better)

Slide # 13

slide14

Electric Vehicles

Zero Emissions

Electric Vehicles (EV) generate no pollutants

Source: Ford Motor Company

Slide # 14

slide15

Electric Vehicles- “First Death”

Electric and internal combustion engine vehicles competed in the late 19th Century Markets, however the cheap prices of petroleum, large weight of batteries and inefficiencies to generate and distribute electricity caused the “first death” of the electric car in the early 20thCentury. Electric vehicles were preferred by women because no additional “help” was needed to crank the engine to start the engine (this fact led to the development of the electric starting motor)

Slide # 15

slide16

22%

74%

Fuel

Transmission

Engine

Vehicle Characteristics

Coeff/Drag = 0.32

Frontal Area = 2.0 m^2

Coeff/Rolling Resist = 0.008

Mass = 3500 lb

Inefficiencies Drag Down Conventional Vehicle MPG

Conventional Vehicle: 28 mpg

Source: U.S. EPA Office of Mobile Sources

Slide # 16

slide17

Motor Vehicle Power Losses

Only about 15% of the energy in the fuel you put in your gas tank gets used to move your car down the road or run useful accessories like air conditioning or power steering. The rest of the energy is lost. Because of this the potential to improve fuel economy with advanced technologies is enormous

Source: EPA / DOE

Slide # 17

slide18

Hybrid Vehicles

A hybrid differs from an all-Electric Vehicle in that it uses an internal combustion engine to generate electricity for its electric motor. As a result, hybrid vehicles can be designed to never need recharging from an external source of electricity. Their need for batteries can also be reduced to little more than needed for a typical gasoline vehicle.

Cmb - Miles per gallon (combined), based on 55% city and 45% highway miles

Slide # 18

slide19

Minimize electrical

efficiency losses

Fuel

Transmission

Engine

Minimize mechanical

efficiency losses

Optimize regenerative braking

while maintaining safety

Hybrid Power train Challenges

Rechargeable Energy System

Source: U.S. EPA Office of Mobile Sources

Slide # 19

slide20

Fuel

Transmission

Engine

Hybrid Fuel Efficiency Potential

“Perfect” Hybrid with High Efficiency Engine: 141 mpg

Rechargeable Energy System

99%

99%

33%

Vehicle Characteristics

Drag Coefficient = 0.2

Frontal Area = 2.0 m^2

Coeff/Rolling Resist = 0.006

Mass = 3500 lb

Source: U.S. EPA Office of Mobile Sources

Slide # 20

slide21

How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work

  • A hybrid electric vehicle combines the best features of internal combustion engines and electric motors. There are two basic types of hybrid vehicles: series and parallel.
  • In a series hybrid configuration, the engine generates electricity for the battery pack which supplies the electric motor. There is no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels. The engine, sized for an average load and operated at an optimum rate, is much smaller than the engine of a conventional vehicle of equal performance and produces less pollution.

Slide # 21

slide22

How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work

  • In a parallel hybrid design, both the engine and the electric motor are connected to the wheels, which means that the engine can be sized for cruising and the electric motor used to assist with acceleration or hill climbing.
  • In both designs, energy that would otherwise be wasted in braking, can be recaptured and used to drive a generator to produce electricity. The electricity produced by regenerative braking systems is stored in the hybrid's battery system for future use. In stop-and-go city driving generating electricity while braking can dramatically improve overall fuel economy.

Slide # 22

slide23

Hybrid Vehicle Configurations

"Series" or

"Range Extender"

Hybrid Vehicle Configuration

"Parallel" or "Power Assist" Hybrid Vehicle Configuration

Slide # 23

slide24

Hybrid ‘Series Configuration’

"Series" or

"Range Extender"

Hybrid Vehicle Configuration

Benefits of a series configuration over a parallel configuration are:

  • The engine never idles, which reduces vehicle emissions
  • The engine drives a generator to run at optimum performance
  • Allows a variety of options when mounting engine and vehicle components
  • Some series hybrids do not need a transmission

Slide # 24

slide25

Hybrid ‘Parallel Configuration’

"Parallel" or "Power Assist" Hybrid Vehicle Configuration

Benefits of a parallel configuration versus a series configuration:

  • The vehicle has more power because both the engine and the motor supply power simultaneously
  • Most parallel vehicles do not need a generator
  • The power is directly coupled to the road, thus, it can be more efficient

Slide # 25

slide28

Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

It is an electric vehicle that uses Lithium-ion technology batteries to achieve an autonomy of 120 miles per charge. If the user would like to drive for longer distances, it would activate the internal combustion engine and the car would become a hybrid vehicle. Under just electric operation it would give you an equivalent of 165 miles/gallon and in the hybrid operation you would get 45 miles/gallon. It takes 8 to 6 hours to recharge the battery, but it could potentially be used as a supplemental energy source for your home after a long drive, it may be good for 98 % of non-heavy duty applications.

Slide # 28

slide29

Who killed the electric vehicle?

The available battery technology???

Slide # 29

slide30

Who killed the electric vehicle?

Economic interests - car manufacturers??? Estimated revenues for engine spare parts $5 billion USD/year

VS

Slide # 30

slide31

Who killed the electric vehicle?

Economic interests - car manufacturers??? Estimated revenues for breaking spare parts $1 billion USD/year

VS

Slide # 31

slide32

Who killed the electric vehicle?

Us – Market Driven Features???

VS

Slide # 32

slide34

Is the electric car really death?

New Electric Cars 2008

The Tesla Roadster, the first 500 of which are scheduled for delivery in early 2008 uses Li-Ion batteries to achieve 245 miles per charge, while also capable of going 0-60 in under 4 seconds.

The Toyota RAV4 EV was powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices.

Slide # 34

slide35

Is the electric car really death?

New Electric Cars 2010

The Saturn Vue Green Line, is a plug-in hybrid wigh Lithium-ion batteries that would give an equivalent energy efficiency of 70 mpg under normal operation. Mass production for this vehicle is scheduled to start in 2010 (so, it would be the 2011 Model Year)

The GM Volt, is a plug-in hybrid with Lithium-ion batteries that would give an energy efficiency equivalent to 150 mpg with a range of 640 miles. It is scheduled to go into production in 2010 (2011 Model Year)

Slide # 35

slide37

An example of the future: fuel cell vehicle

It has no mobile parts in its engine, it gets its energy from the reaction of Hydrogen and Oxygen. The issue, how do you get the hydrogen???

Slide # 37

slide38

Questions??

Slide # 38

slide39

Thank you!!!

Slide # 39