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The Long March Towards High Energy Neutrino Astronomy. C. Spiering, Leeds, July 23, 2004. Entrance to the Promised Land after 40 Years !. Moisej Markov. Bruno Pontecorvo. M.Markov, 1960 : We propose to install detectors deep in a lake or in the sea and to determine the direction of

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slide1
The Long March

Towards High Energy Neutrino Astronomy

C. Spiering, Leeds, July 23, 2004

slide6
Moisej Markov

Bruno Pontecorvo

M.Markov,1960:

We propose to install detectors

deep in a lake or in the sea and

to determine the direction of

charged particles with the help

of Cherenkov radiation

slide7

slide8
Pioneering

DUMAND

Fred Reines

John Learned

+ Roberts, Stenger, Gorham, ..

~ 1975:

first meetings towards an underwater array close to Hawaii

slide9
DUMAND-II Proposal 1988 :

- 216 PMTs at 9 strings

- height 230 m

Alas !

... terminated in 1996

slide10
Later used by Amanda and Baikal

1987: DUMAND test string

search for diffuse excess of extra terrestrial high energy neutrinos
DUMAND

FREJUS

 bound

MACRO

WB bound

Search for diffuse excess of extra-terrestrial high energy neutrinos

log E /GeV

slide12
Neutrino Telescopes

Underground

KGF

Baksan

FREJUS

IMB

Kamiokande

Superkamiokande

MACRO

e.g. MACRO, 1356 upgoing muons

~ 1000 m²

slide13
Pioneering

BAIKAL

Bezrukov, Domogatsky

Berezinsky, Zatsepin

  • 1981 first site explorations
  • 1984 first stationary string
  • first neutrino detector NT-36
  • 1994 first atm. neutrino separated
  • 1998 NT-200 finished

G. Domogatsky

~ 2x Super-K for 1 TeV muons

slide14
Camp

Ice as a natural deployment platform

slide15
3600 m

1366 m

NT-200

4-string stage (1996)

baikal search for h e cascades
NT-200

Look for upward

moving light fronts.

Signal:

isolated cascades from

neutrino interactions

Background:

Bremsshowers from

h.e. downward muons

large effective volume

Baikal Search for H.E.Cascades
baikal upgrade nt200
NT-200

NT-200

140 m

cascades

Baikal Upgrade NT200+

36 additional PMTs  4 times better sensitivity !

slide18
Mediterannean

approaches

NESTOR (since 1991)

„Amanda-sized“ -- under construction

ANTARES(since 1996)

„Amanda sized“ -- under construction

NEMO: R&D for km3 project

Since 2003: joined km3 initiative KM3NET

slide19
2400m

ANTARES

4100m

3400m

NEMO

NESTOR

slide20
Beyond the DUMAND scale:

AMANDA

first site studies at South Pole ~ 1990

shallow detector in bubbly ice 1993/4

10 strings (Amanda-B10) 1997

19 strings (Amanda-II) 2000

Francis Halzen

+ Steve Barwick, Bob Morse, ....

amanda
AMANDA

Super-K

DUMAND

depth

Amanda-II:

677 PMTs

at 19 strings

(1996-2000)

AMANDA-II

drilling
Drilling

Hot water drilling

amanda event signatures muons
AMANDA Event Signatures:Muons

CC muon neutrino

interaction

 track

nm + N  m + X

amanda event signatures cascades
AMANDA Event Signatures: Cascades
  • CC electron and tau neutrino interaction:
  • (e,,) + N  (e, ) + X
  • NC neutrino interaction:

x + N  x + X

Cascades

slide28
First spectrum > 3 TeV:

- up to 100 TeV

- matches

lower-energy

Frejus data

PRELIMINARY

slide30
Skyplot Amanda-II, 2000

697 events

below horizon

above horizon:

mostly fake events

slide31
Intrinsic source

spectrum

(corrected for

IR absorption)

Measured 

spectrum

AMANDA average flux limit for two assumed

spectral indices , compared to the average

gamma flux of Markarian 501 as observed in

1997 by HEGRA.

AMANDA-II has reached

the sensitivity needed to

search from neutrino fluxes

from TeV gamma sources

of similar strength to the

instrinsic gamma flux.

slide32
90% C.L. upper limits (in units of 10-8cm-2s-1) for selected sources

for an E-2 spectral shape integrated above Eν=10 GeV

PRELIMINARY

slide33

AMANDA skyplot 2000-2003

optimized for best sensitivity to E-3 – E-2 sources

Preliminary

3369 events

slide36
Preliminary

Cas A

Mk501

Mk421

Cyg

Crab

M87

SS433

slide37
Selected Source Analysis

Stacking Source Analysis

Galactic Plane

Transient Sources

Burst Search

Correlation Analysis

Multi-Pole Analysis

Lower energy threshold

(optimize to steeper spectra)

expected sensitivity for amanda 97 03
SS-433

Mk-501 / ~ 1

-45

0

45

90

-90

Measured sensitivity 00-03

Expected sensitivity for AMANDA 97-03

m cm-2 s-1

southern

sky

northern

sky

4 years Super-Kamiokande

170 days

AMANDA-B10

10-14

230 days

AMANDA-II

8 years

MACRO

10-15

declination (degrees)

slide39
Search for a Diffuse

Extraterrestrial Flux

slide40
DUMAND

FREJUS

 bound

MACRO

Amanda-II (2000)

WB bound

Expectation Amanda-II, 3 years

Expectation IceCube, 3 years

Experimental Limits

Baikal (98,99,00)

Amanda-B10 (1997), UHE

Amanda-B10 (1997)

Amanda-II (2000) cascades

In red: only muons

In blue: all flavors

slide41
 bound

 bound

WB bound

WB bound

e:: = 1:2:0  1:1:1

slide42
 bound

 bound

WB bound

WB bound

slide43
DUMAND

FREJUS

 bound

 bound

MACRO

WB bound

WB bound

Expectation Amanda-II, 3 years

Expectation IceCube, 3 years

Experimental all-flavor limits

Baikal (98,99,00)

Amanda-B10 (1997)

Amanda-B10 (1997), UHE

Amanda-II (2000)

Amanda-II (2000) cascades

slide44
Search for neutrinos related

to Gamma Ray Bursts

slide45
-1 hour

+1 hour

10 min

Blinded Window

Background determined on-source/off-time

Background determined on-source/off-time

t=0+1h

Waxman/Bahcall 99

  • Low background (due narrow time and space coincidence)
  • - Large effective areas (50 000 m² @ 1 PeV)

Upper limit:

16 · Waxman/Bahcall flux

slide47
Indirect Search for WIMPs

Neutrinos from

the Sun

Amanda

At South Pole the Sun sinks maximally 23° below horizon. Therefore

only Amanda-II with its dramatically improved reconstruction capabilities

for horizontial tracks (compared to Amanda-B10) can be used for

solar WIMP search.

slide48
Present upper limits and expected IceCube sensitivity on muon flux from

neutralino annihilations in center of Sun

 Disfavored

by direct search

search for relativistic magnetic monopoles
10-14

10-15

10-16

10-17

10-18

0.50

0.75

1.00

 = v/c

Search for relativistic magneticmonopoles

Soudan

KGF

Baikal-98,99,00

MACRO

Orito

upper limit (cm-2 s-1 sr-1)

Cherenkov-Light 

n2·(g/e)2

Amanda-97

 electrons

n = 1.33

(g/e) = 137/ 2

IceCube

 8300

supernova monitor
Count rates

0 5 10 sec

Supernova-Monitor

Amanda-II

B10:

60% of Galaxy

A-II:

95% of Galaxy

IceCube:

Up to LMC

Amanda-B10

IceCube

slide52
The km3 scale at South Pole

IceCube

- 80 Strings

- 4800 PMTs

  • Instrumented Volume: 1 km3
  • Installation:

2005-2010

slide53
6 Amanda

modules

IceCube

Super-

Kamiokande

(Japan)

AMANDA-II

icecube eff area
IceCube Eff Area

IceCube Effective Area

Aeff / km2

cos 

slide55
IceTop + IceCube: 1/3 km2 sr

….. for coincident tracks

VETO against

all downward events E > 300 TeV with trajectories inside IceTop

CALIBRATION

of angular response and geometry with tagged muons

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

in energy range 1015 eV – 1018 eV

cosmic rays
Cosmic rays

Amanda/Spase

IceCube/IceTop

... investigates

transition to

extra-galactic CR

slide57
SS-433

Mk-501 / ~ 1

-45

0

45

90

-90

Achieved and

expected sensitivities

to steady point sources

m cm-2 s-1

10-14

AMANDA

Super-K,

MACRO

2001

10-15

2003

GX

339-4

Antares

Nestor ?

2007

10-16

IceCube

KM3 in Mediterr.

10-17

2012

slide58
RICE

AGASA

Amanda, Baikal

2002

RICE AGASA

Anita

2004

AUGER nt

AABN

2007

EUSO

2012

Auger

Salsa

km3

Achieved and expected sensitivities to diffuse fluxes

slide59
„Nothing is guaranteed,

but history is on our side.“

Francis Halzen

slide60
Moses HAD a guarantee for

final success

... but saw the promised land

only from far and never

entered it by himself.

With nearly 3 orders of

magnitude improvement

over 10 years we have

a good chance for

success before OUR

retirement !

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