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Hunger. The Physiology of Hunger. Contractions of the stomach Washburn study. Physiology of Hunger. Washburn’s studies showed hunger was partially related to the stomach. But those with their stomachs removed still feel hunger. Body Chemistry. Glucose

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The physiology of hunger
The Physiology of Hunger

  • Contractions of the stomach

    • Washburn study


Physiology of hunger
Physiology of Hunger

  • Washburn’s studies showed hunger was partially related to the stomach.

  • But those with their stomachs removed still feel hunger.


Body chemistry
Body Chemistry

  • Glucose

  • The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat.

  • When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.


The physiology of hunger body chemistry and the brain
The Physiology of HungerBody Chemistry and the Brain

  • Glucose

  • Insulin

  • Hypothalamus

    • Lateral hypothalamus

      • orexin

    • Vetromedial hypothalamus


The brain
The Brain

In the 1960’s it was discovered that hunger comes from………..

The Hypothalamus


The hypothalamus hunger
The Hypothalamus & Hunger

  • Along the sides of the hypothalamus is the lateral hypothalamus: which brings on hunger.

Stimulate the lateral hypothalamus and even a well fed animal will begin to eat.

Lesion the lateral hypothalamus and a starving animal will have no interest in food.


The hypothalamus and hunger
The Hypothalamus and Hunger

  • Along the lower middle section of the hypothalamus is the ventromedial hypothalamus: which depresses hunger.

Stimulate the ventromedial hypothalamus and the animal will stop eating

Lesion the ventromedial hypothalamus the animal will continuously want to eat.


How does the hypothalamus work

Leptin

Leptin is a protein produced by bloated fat cells.

Hypothalamus senses rises in leptin and will curb eating and increase activity.

Can leptin injections help me?

Set Point

Hypothalamus acts like a thermostat.

We are meant to be in a certain weight range.

When we fall below weight our body will increase hunger and decrease energy expenditure (Basic Metabolic Rate).

What happens if we go above our set point?

How does the hypothalamus work?

Two Theories


The physiology of hunger body chemistry and the brain1
The Physiology of HungerBody Chemistry and the Brain

  • Appetite hormones

    • Ghrelin

    • Obestatin

    • PYY

    • Leptin

  • Set point

  • Basal metabolic rate


The appetite hormones
The Appetite Hormones

  • Insulin: Hormone secreted by pancreas—controls blood glucose.

  • Leptin: Protein secreted by fat cells—when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger.

  • Orexin: Hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus.

  • Ghrelin: Hormone secreted by empty stomach—sends “I’m Hungry” signals to the brain.

  • Obestatin: Sister hormone to ghrelin. Secreted by stomach—sends “I’m Full” signals to the brain.

  • PYY: Digestive tract hormone—sends “I’m Not Hungry” signals to the brain.


The psychology of hunger taste preferences biology and culture
The Psychology of HungerTaste Preferences: Biology and Culture

  • Taste preferences

    • Sweet & Salty: Genetic & Universal

    • Neophobia: fear of trying new and unfamiliar—extends to foods

    • Adaptive taste preferences


The psychology of hunger eating disorders
The Psychology of HungerEating Disorders

  • Eating disorders

    • Anorexia nervosa

    • Bulimia nervosa

    • Binge-eating disorder


Eating disorders
Eating Disorders

Anorexia Nervosa

  • An eating disorder in which a normal weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.


Eating disorders1
Eating Disorders

Bulimia Nervosa

  • An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high caloric foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.








Obesity and weight control
Obesity and Weight Control

  • Historical explanations for obesity

  • Obesity

    • Definition (BMI 30 & ↑)

    • Statistics

      • Adult obesity, 34%(more than doubled in last 40 yrs)

      • Child-teen obesity has quadrupled

    • Obesity and life expectancy




Obesity
Obesity

  • Severely overweight to the point where it causes health issues.

  • Mostly eating habits but some people are predisposed towards obesity.

Click on the pictures to see some case studies on obesity.


Obesity and weight control the social effects of obesity
Obesity and Weight ControlThe Social Effects of Obesity

  • Social effects of obesity

  • Weight discrimination

  • Psychological effects of obesity




Obesity and weight control the physiology of obesity
Obesity and Weight ControlThe Physiology of Obesity

  • Fat Cells

We store energy in fat cells, which become larger & more numerous if we are obese, and smaller (but still more numerous) if we then lose weight.


Obesity and weight control the physiology of obesity1
Obesity and Weight ControlThe Physiology of Obesity

  • Set point

  • Metabolism

    • Once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight

    • Fat tissue has a lower metabolic rate

    • Overweight person’s weight drops below previous set point, hunger ↑ and metabolism ↓

    • Body adapts to starvation by burning off fewer calories


Obesity and weight control the physiology of obesity2
Obesity and Weight ControlThe Physiology of Obesity

  • The genetic factor

  • The food and activity factor

    • Sleep loss

    • Social influence

    • Food consumption and activity level


Obesity and weight control losing weight
Obesity and Weight ControlLosing Weight

  • Realistic and moderate goals

  • Success stories

  • Attitudinal changes


Division title green print subdivision title blue print
Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print)

  • xxx

    • xxx

    • xxx


Division title green print subdivision title blue print1
Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print)

Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished


Definition slide
Definition Slide

= add definition here



Motivation
Motivation

= a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.


Instinct
Instinct

= a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.


Drive reduction theory
Drive-reduction Theory

= the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.


Homeostasis
Homeostasis

= a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.


Incentive
Incentive

= a positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behavior


Hierarchy of needs
Hierarchy of Needs

= Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.


Glucose
Glucose

= the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.


Set point
Set Point

= the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.


Basal metabolic rate
Basal Metabolic Rate

= the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.


Anorexia nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa

= an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.


Bulimia nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa

= an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.


Binge eating disorder
Binge-eating Disorder

= significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.


Sexual response cycle
Sexual Response Cycle

= the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.


Refractory period
Refractory Period

= a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.


Estrogens
Estrogens

= sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amount by females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.


Testosterone
Testosterone

= the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.


Sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation

= an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).


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