What we will be discussing… • History of Indian Cinema • What Bollywood Is • How Music Influences Indian Films
Bollywood Movies By: Suraj Tandon
History • The Beginning: The Silent Movie Era • Cinema came to India on July 7, 1896 - Lumiere Brothers' Cinematograph films in Bombay. • In 1899, Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatavdekar - two short films “The Wrestlers” and, “Man and Monkey”. • First entirely Indian-made film, “Raja Harischandra”,(Considered “Father of Indian Cinema”)(produced and directed by D. G. Phalke) - • released on May 3rd, 1913.
The Era of Talking Movies (1930 -1940) • India's first talkie “Alam Ara”(Light of the world) Used a single sound system. Sound and image recorded as one. • Was released on March 14th, 1931. • Produced by Ardeshir Irani. Through Imperial Film Co.
Majority of India’s population during the late 1890s was illiterate. • Film industry exploded in India because movies were a means in which the citizens of India could entertain themselves. • Movies produced within the 1930s – 1940s contained many songs and dances.
As the talkies emerged, so did issues related to language of the film emerge. The various regional languages in India led film makers to produce films in both the regional language (Bengali, Marathi), and in Hindi, in order to cater to the larger Hindi-speaking market. • The films of this era were mostly musicals and some of them had up to 40 songs. • Three big filmmaking institutions, Madan Theatres, Krishna Film Co., and Imperial Film Co.
The films in the 30's were more modernistic in their outlook. • One of the most prominent films of this period is Pramathesh Barua's: Devdas’(1935). • Playback singing was introduced to Indian cinema by Nitin Bose in 1935, with the Hindi film Dhoop Chaon (sunlight and shade). • Double sound system = where sound and image were recorded separately. Allowed for easy editing afterwards.
SIGNIFICANT FILMS 1931 Alam Ara c. Ard. Irani (first Indian talking film)1931 Shirin Farhad (sound and Image recorded separately)1931 Jamai Babu c. D.R. Bardkar (Images of Urban Calcutta)1932 Noorjaban c. Adr. Irani (India’s first talkie in English)1932 Indraprastha c. T. Marconi (song & dance spectacular) 1934 Karam c.1935 Devdas c. Yusuf Muljee, Bimal Roy, Sudhin Majumdar & Dilip Gupta1936 Bangalee c. Bibhuti Das1936 Sant Tukaram c. V. Avadhoot1937 Mukti c. Bimal Roy (Tracks, Mix of Interior & Exterior, Expressionism & Realism)1938 Duniya na Mane c. Avadhoot
Sharukh Khan & Madhuri Dixit in Sanjay Leela Bansali's 'Devdas' (2002)
1951 – 1960 • There was an active support for "parallel cinema" which talked about social issues, problems and values of the society. • The Film and Television Institute of India was established at Pune in 1959 • 1950’s and 1960’s regarded "Golden Age" of Indian cinema in terms of films, stars, music and lyrics.
1961 – 1980 • In the 70s, gap between multi-starrer, big budget films increased. Mostly action oriented with revenge as their dominating theme. • Rise of India's greatest superstar, Amitabh Bachchan (Sholay/Flames 1975). • 1981 – 1990, Even to present time • Revival of the musical love stories in Indian cinema.
What is Bollywood? • Bollywood is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based film industry in India. Created by blending Bombay (the city now officially called Mumbai) and Hollywood, the famous center of the United States film industry. • It is commonly referred to as "Hindi cinema“. Majority of films produced by Bollywood are in Hindi dialect • They are usually musicals. Very rare to see an Indian movie without song and dance. Half of movie is usually musical other half contains dialogue.
Consist of many songs and dances – approximately 5-6 songs/dances per movie. Songs are also 5-10 minutes in length. • In 2002 more than 1200 films were produced. • On average Bollywood produces more than 1000 films a year. • Include many plots: love triangles, comedy, • and dare-devil thrills -- all are mixed up in a • three hour long extravaganza. • Movie soundtracks are released sometimes • even before the movie is released.
Why musicals? See next slide • Songs and dances in • popular Indian cinema • are used as natural • expressions of • everyday emotions • and situations. • Indian cinema does not require that its • performers act, dance, and sing – they • must merely act and dance.
Why musicals? Cont’d • Has always been associated with Indian culture. • Dates back to ancient India during introduction of Sanskrit (first language of India). • Song and dance have been and are still associated with many religions (eg. Hindu religion). (Two clips played from “Laagan”/Tax) • Dramas or plays performed by religious members of such faith contained song, music, and dance. • People would sing and dance in praise or hope of rain to replenish crops. • Also associated with Punjabi culture. • Two types of song and dance originating out of Punjab are Bhangra and Giddha. (Clip played from “Asa Nu Maan Watna Da”/We are proud of our country). • Were performed hundreds of years ago and are still performed today in hope and celebration of a good harvest of crops.
Songs are sung by professional • play-back singers that are pre-recorded and lip-sung by dancing actors and actresses. • Playback singers are featured in the opening credits. • Song lyrics are usually about love. • Kissing is rarely seen within Indian films. Considered a taboo within Indian culture, not only within films but in public places. Song lyrics and musical underscore within film allow for such sexual and physical display to be expressed without actually having to perform it on screen. (Clip played from “Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam”/I have already given my heart)
Each movie has it’s own theme song. • Dialogue and song lyrics are often in Hindustani vocabulary; blend of Hindi and pure Urdu. • Many elegant and poetic Arabic and Persian loan-words. • Renown male playback singers: K. L. Saigal, Kishore Kumar, Mohammed Rafi, Mukesh, and Manna Dey.
Renown female playback singers: Lata Mangeshkar and her sister Asha Bhosle. • Lata made the Guinness World Records for singing most songs = Thirty-thousand
Music often borrowed from not only Indian classical, folk, and devotional music, but also from Japanese music (as in the film "Love in Tokyo"), Persian music, and from Western music. • Film music is often set to large, Western-style orchestras.Musical underscore for film is created in the same manner as Western or European films. • Instrumentalists do not get film credits. • Instruments used to produce underscore: bansuri, dhol, harmonium, sitar, tabla, violin, grand piano etc.
Sitar Tabla Bansuri Dhol Harmonium
BOLLYWOOD VS. HOLLYWOOD 1,013 FILMS PRODUCED* 739 3.6 bil. TICKETS SOLD 2.6 bil. $1.3 bil. WORLDWIDE REVENUES** $51 bil. 12.6% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE 5.6% $1.5 mil AVG. PRODUCTION COST PER FILM $47.7 mil. $500,000 AVG. MARKETING COST PER FILM $27.3 mil.
Greater number of tickets sold by Bollywood is explained by India’s population being far greater than U.S.A’s • Smaller revenue generated by the Bollywood industry in comparison to the Hollywood industry is a result of excessive piracy of Indian films. • Low production and marketing costs of Bollywood films is a result or lack of government funding and economic turmoil within India.
Finances • Indian government is not an active supporter of lending out money to film companies. • Indian banks were often forbidden to lend out money to film companies. • Film companies receive financial support from private organizations. • Support is still very modest compared to Hollywood standards.
Highest paid Bollywood actress: Aishwarya Rai – 25 Million Rs. (Rupees) = $625,000 Cdn. year. Highest paid Bollywood actor: Amitabh Bachchan
Most expensive movie ever made – Devdas(2002) • Highest grossing film – Sholay • Contact • For more information: • Suraj Tandon • B.Sc.(Hons) • firstname.lastname@example.org