This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly! Bell Activity • Your words are “archaeologist” and “artifact” • Find the word on your pink study guide and complete the following information for the word. Find the definition using a glossary. • Use your own knowledge and experience to complete the rest of the definition. • Keep your study guide out and also have your Paleo-Indian paper from yesterday out too. • Where should your backpack be?
This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly! Bell Activity • Review for the counties test! • Just before the first bell rings, pick up the ipad that matches your box number and log into Canvas. Where should your backpack be?
Content Objective: We will identify where the first Native Americans came from and what their lives were like when they came to Utah. Behavior – Work Ethic Language Objective: We will practice identifying and making inferences (educated guesses) based on evidence. Goals
What do you infer… • Yesterday, we learned that archaeologists can use artifacts to learn about the past. • What do they do when the purpose of the object is not known? • They make an inference. They infer (try to figure out) what the item might have been used for. This picture shows the same object from three different sides; front, back, and a side view.
Archaeologists make inferences • Just as we have to make inferences (guesses) about an artifact, we also have to make educated guesses about what life was like for the ancient Paleo-Indians. • The Paleo-Indians appear to have been the first people to have lived in the Americas, including Utah.
Questions an archaeologist asks… • But who were the Paleo-Indians? • Where did they come from? • When did they arrive in the Americas? • Were they the first people here? • How did they get here? • How did they live in this new, harsh environment? • How did they find food? • What did they eat? • And so on…
Theories About How People First Came to the Americas The first is the Land Bridge theory, also called Clovis first. (As we watch the video clip write the four key ideas of this theory.) 1. 2. 3. 4.
Land Bridge • People came to the Americas by crossing Beringia, the land bridge that connected Asia and North America. 1. Clovis points are found all across North America and are dated as being very old. 2. Land bridge opens and people cross into Americas. 3. Their technology allows them to hunt, and possibly kill off the megafauna. 4. As they Ice Age ended, they populated moved into the lower continent. The timing of this fits with the age of Clovis points.
Clovis Points • These people made stone spear points that are called Clovis points after the town in New Mexico near where they were found. • Sites date from around 13,000 Y.A.
How to Make a Clovis Point http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/stoneage/
Pro-Land Bridge Most popular theory about how people came to the Americas. Many Clovis sites have been discovered all over North America. Anti-Land Bridge Older sites that seem to predate the opening of the ice-free corridor. Land Bridge
Sites that Claim to be Pre-Clovis 22. MeadowcroftPennsylvania13,500-17,500 years oldLanceolate point, blade-like flakes, and charred basketry. 24. Cactus HillVirginia17,000-19,000 years oldLanceolate points, blades, and blade cores. 25. TopperSouth Carolina15,000-16,000 years oldPossible stone tools found in dated deposits.
Theories About How People First Came to the Americas The second is the boats from Asia theory. (As we watch the video clip write the four key ideas of this theory.) 1. 2. 3. 4.
Boats from Asia • This theory describes how people could have come to the Americas by using boats. 1. People traveled by boat to the Americas. 2. Evidence is suggesting that the coasts of the North America were capable of supporting life. 3. Monte Verde seems to confirm pre-Clovis. 4. DNA says they traveled rapidly to sites all across the Americas starting at least 20,000 years ago.
Monte Verde • It is believed that Monte Verde was occupied from 14,000 – 13,800 Y.A. • The excavation found pieces of wooden poles and stakes were still tied with cords made of local grasses. • A human footprint was also found.
Pro-Asian Boat Theory There was enough wildlife along the coast to support people. Monte Verde, a site which is far away from the land bridge. Anti-Asian Boat Theory No ancient boats have been discovered in North America, although they have been found in Asia. Questions about the dating of Monte Verde. It is not that much older than Clovis. Asian Boat Theory
Theories About How People First Came to the Americas The third is the boats from Europe theory. (As we watch the video clip write the four key ideas of this theory.) 1. 2. 3. 4.
European Boat Theory • This theory states that people came to the Americas by crossing the Atlantic Ocean. 1. Solutrean points look like Clovis and are made with a similar technique. 2. A Cactus Hill spear point seems to bridge the time gap between the two cultures. 3. Modern Alaskans show that it is possible to cross the same type of environment as the existed in the Ice Age. 4. Some DNA studies also seem to support this theory.
Pro-Atlantic Boat Theory. Similarities between Solutrean and Clovis Points. The Cactus Hill site may show a connection between Solutrean and Clovis points. Genetic studies. Some skull reconstructions. Anti-Atlantic Boat Theory. No boats have been found. Other characteristics of Solutrean culture, like art, have not been found in the Americas. A 3,000 to 5,000 year gap between the Solutrean period of France and Spain and the Clovis of the New World. European Boat Theory
Theories About How People First Came to the Americas Combined Theory Is there a fourth possibility of how people could have come to the Americas? Let’s make some inferences that combine some of the ideas from each theory. Then let’s see if the video agrees with us. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Paleo-Indian Migrations • So what is the new theory combined theory of populating the Americas? 1. Clovis tools are an American invention. 2. People had lots of food sources, not just big game. 3. Trade networks were used to trade goods and take people to new groups. 4. They knew a lot about the land, and where they would need to go in the future. 5. All of this suggests Clovis tech spread across an already established people, who arrived 20,000+ years ago.
However they got here, people were present across the Americas. • There is evidence that Paleo-Indians once lived around Lake Bonneville, and in the mountains & basins. • Here are two important sites for understanding how Paleo-Indians and their descendents lived are here in Utah.
So how did they live here in Utah? Danger & Hogup Caves • Danger Cave shows signs of being used by American Indians for 11,000 years. • Hogup Cave also shows signs of habitation for around 9,000 years • Tragically, this cave has been destroyed by vandals.
In the future… • Utah was once thought to not have many Paleo-Indian sites. • Work by archaeologists at USU, has found 57 potential Paleo-Indian sites in the Logan to Soda Springs, ID area. • These sites may give us more insights into the Paleo-Indians.
The Paleo-Indians adapt • As the Ice Age ended, the megafauna went extinct. • The climate in Utah and other places changed. • The Paleo-Indians had to adapt to these changes. • Their spear points show an example of adaptation.
Adaptations • Over the course of thousands of years, the Paleo-Indians adapted to the many environments across the Americas. • They gradually developed into the Archaic Indians, whose lifestyle was similar to the Paleo-Indians in some ways and different in others. • Paleo-Indians lived in Utah from at least 12,000 years ago until around 7,000 years ago. • Let’s compare the two groups.
Desert Gatherers • Historians call the Archaic Indians in Utah the desert gatherers, because the land was so dry and arid. • These people lived in Utah for over 6,000 years. • Over time their culture became more and more complex.
Increasing complexity • We find many innovations in Archaic Indians sites. • atlatl • baskets • wicki-ups • Moving with the seasons to find food. • Using more and more resources in their environment. • Trading networks to get resources not available in their environment.
Atlatl • The atlatl helped increase the distance and accuracy that ancient and modern hunters could achieve. • This video shows how an atlatl is thrown and made.
Traveling Peoples • Some of the Archaic Indians of Utah left over time. • Others stayed and joined with new people coming from other areas. • These new groups are called the Anasazi and the Fremont.
This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly! Bell Activity • Your words are “migration” and “adaptation” • Find the word on your pink study guide and complete the following information for the word. • Find the definition using a glossary. • Use your own knowledge and experience to complete the rest of the definition. • Where should your backpack be?
This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly! Bell Activity • Your word is “prehistoric” • Find the word on your pink study guide and complete the following information for the word. • Find the definition using a glossary. • Use your own knowledge and experience to complete the rest of the definition. • Where should your backpack be?