Phase II: Conjugation. Synthetic reaction of a xenobiotic (or of a Phase I metabolite of a xenobiotic) with an endogenous substance Results in introduction of polar, ionizable groups to enhance water solubility and hence excretion. Major Phase II reactions. Glucuronidation Sulfation
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Glutamic acid (Glu)
Converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide
O2•- +O2•- + 2H+ O2 + H2O2
Couple reduction of hydrogen peroxide (or other peroxide) to oxidation of another substrate
ROOH + R’H ROH + R’OH