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Colonial Ways of Life. Chapter 3. The Southern Colonies. Chapter 3 Section 1. The Southern Economy. Economy based on agriculture. Tobacco, first successful cash crop Grown for market. Demand made many Chesapeake Bay farmers wealthy. Rise of plantations

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the southern colonies
The Southern Colonies

Chapter 3 Section 1

the southern economy
The Southern Economy
  • Economy based on agriculture.
  • Tobacco, first successful cash crop
    • Grown for market.
    • Demand made many Chesapeake Bay farmers wealthy.
  • Rise of plantations
    • Large estates where many laborers lived on the land and cultivated the crops for the landowner.
rice and indigo in south carolina
Rice and Indigo in South Carolina
  • Failed crops: sugarcane and rice
  • New type of rice introduced
    • Becomes major cash crop
    • Led to need for West African labor (slaves)
  • (1740s) Indigo introduced
    • Eliza Lucas developed new technique for growing
    • Could be produced in the rice off season.
life on a southern plantation
Life on a Southern Plantation
  • 1600s – plantations were small and rough
  • 1700s – large brick mansions and elaborate gardens
    • Shifted to slave labor
    • Gentry began using the Overseers
southern society
Southern Society
  • Southern gentry- planter elite
  • Backcountry farmers (yeomen) and subsistence farming
  • Tenant farmers worked land they rented from elite.
  • Indentured servants sold their labor for food, clothing, and shelter.
    • 4-7 year contracts
bacon s rebellion
Bacon’s Rebellion
  • Wealthy planters dominated Virginia society.
    • William Berkeley - Restricted vote and gave tax exemptions to the gentry
  • Crisis over land
    • Minimal land for indentured servants and tenant farmers
    • Governor Berkeley refused to extend colony into Native American lands
    • Old Treaties designated land for Natives
    • (1675) Natives and colonists killed in battle over land
  • (April 1676) Nathaniel Bacon leads a revolt
    • Seized power from the corrupt Governor.
    • Wanted to annihilate the Natives
  • (Oct 1676) Ended with Bacon’s death
slavery increases in virginia
Slavery increases in Virginia
  • As a result of Bacon’s Rebellion, Virginia supports moving westward into Native land
    • To avoid another rebellion
  • Accelerated use of slave labor
    • Slaves did not have to be freed or own land
    • Cheaper land in Pennsylvania meant less indentured servants in Virginia
  • (1672) Charles II granted a charter for the Royal African Company to engage in slave trade with England
  • Eventually any English merchant could engage in slave trade
the journey of an african slave
The Journey of an African Slave
  • Most slaves came from West Africa
  • Some came from 500 miles inland in coffles
  • Once on the coast, the conditions got worse while awaiting transport
  • The journey across the Atlantic Ocean was called the Middle Passage
    • 3 weeks to 3 months
  • Disease was common on ships and many slaves attempted suicide (drowning or starvation)
    • Speculum oris
  • Violent rebellions on ships
    • (1839) The Amistad
the middle passage
The Middle Passage
  • OlaudahEquianoreflects on his journey,

“At last, when the ship we were in had got in all her cargo, … we were all put under deck… The closeness of the place, and heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. …. This brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died… the shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable…”

slavery in the colonies
Slavery in the Colonies
  • Between 10-12 million Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas between 1450-1870.
  • Roughly 2 million died at sea along the middle passage.
  • 3.5 million to Brazil
  • 1.5 million to Spanish colonies
  • 4 million to the Caribbean
  • 500,000 to North America
slavery in the colonies1
Slavery in the Colonies
  • The first Africans were treated as indentured servants.
    • Many obtained their freedom by converting to Christianity
  • 1638, Maryland becomes first colony to recognize slavery.
  • In 1705, Virginia creates a slave code– set of laws that defined the relationship between slaves and free people.
    • Slaves could not:
      • Own property
      • Assemble in large numbers
      • Strike or speak out against a white person
new england s economy
New England’s Economy
  • Geography played an important role in shaping the economy
    • Subsistence farming
      • Corn and apples
    • Fishing and Whaling
      • Grand Banks produced ideal fishing conditions
      • Fishing was the most prosperous industry
      • Whales used for making various items
  • Lumbering and Shipbuilding
    • Waterfalls powered sawmills
    • Ships built for cheap
life in new england s towns
Life in New England’s Towns
  • Towns became the heart of New England society.
    • Land granted to groups of people (town proprietors) instead of individuals
  • Town Meetings in Meeting Houses
    • Free men elected leaders to the General Court.
    • Town meetings developed into the local governments; run by annually-elected selectmen
    • Set the stage for democratic government
  • Puritan Society
    • “Holy watching” and “Doing the Lord’s work”
      • Watching your neighbors
salem witch trials
Salem Witch Trials
  • (1600s) Devout Puritans believed Satan used witches to spread evil on Earth
  • (1691-1692) Teenage girls accused several people of being witches in the town of Salem, Massachusetts
    • People pointed fingers at others
    • Those who confessed were spared
    • Those who denied were hanged
  • 200 residents were tried and 20 executed
  • Girls eventually confess that they made up their accusations
trade and the rise of cities
Trade and the Rise of Cities
  • Triangular Trade
    • Bills of exchange – credit slips English merchants gave the Caribbean planters in exchange for their sugar.
    • Triangular trade – three way trade New England merchants established with the Caribbean colonies and England.
    • Other types of triangular trade existed
  • Made many merchants grew very wealthy and led to new industries in New England.
    • Rum
trade and the rise of cities2
Trade and the Rise of Cities
  • (1760) Philadelphia – 23,000 people
  • Charles Town, SC – 8,000 people
  • Developed social classes
  • A New Urban Society
    • Overcrowding, crime, pollution, and epidemics
    • Led to increased city governments
      • Constables
society in the middle colonies
Society in the Middle Colonies
  • Cash crop = WHEAT
  • Growth of the Middle Colonies
    • Rivers made it easy for farmers to move their goods to the coast for shipping to markets.
    • New York & Philadelphia – largest cities in British colonies
  • The Wheat Boom
    • Population explosion and new immigrants led to huge demand for wheat to feed them.
    • Entrepreneurs- businessmen who risked their money by buying land, equipment, and supplies for profits.
    • Created capitalists, people who had money to invest in new business.
the imperial system
The Imperial System

Chapter 3 Section 3

mercantilism
Mercantilism
  • Mercantilism - The theory that the state’s (country’s) power depends on its wealth.
    • Accumulate gold and silver
    • Sell more than you buy
    • Be self-sufficient in raw materials & establishcolonies where raw materials are
  • Navigation Acts
    • All goods imported or exported carried on English ships
    • Listed specific raw materials that could be sold only to England or other English colonies.
    • Staple Act required everything the colonies imported to come through England.
mercantilism1
Mercantilism
  • Customs inspectors – enforced new laws on merchants and reported directly to England
  • Problems with Enforcement
    • Massachusetts merchants routinely ignored Acts; smuggled good to Caribbean and Europe
    • Massachusetts governor informed King Charles II, that Mass. was not required to obey laws made by Parliament unless it was in the interest of Mass. to do so.
  • The Dominion of New England
    • In 1686 the English government merged Mass, Plymouth, and Rhode Island together to create the Dominion of New England.
    • By 1688, Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York too
the glorious revolution of 1688
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
  • King James II offends many English people.
    • Revokes town charters
    • Openly practices Catholicism
  • A Bloodless Revolution
    • Parliament invites his Protestant daughter Mary and husband William to take the throne.
    • James II flees resulting in a bloodless change of power known as the Glorious Revolution.

* English Bill of Rights leads

to expansion of ideas

for the

American Bill of Rights

the glorious revolution of 16881
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
  • The Glorious Revolution in America
    • William and Mary allow the Dominion of New England to dissolve.
    • (1691) New charter created the royal colony of Massachusetts
    • Insist that the Massachusetts governor had to be appointed by the king.
    • Also changed who could vote in Mass. and granted freedom of worship to Anglicans.
the glorious revolution of 16882
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
  • The Legacy of John Locke
    • Glorious Revolution showed that there were times when revolution against the king was justified.
    • English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) writes Two Treatise of Government (1690).
    • Natural rights – fundamental rights all people are born possessing, including the right to life, liberty, and property.
    • Kings should not have absolute power, or power without limits.
social contract
Social Contract
  • John Locke and other philosophers developed a solution to the problems that exist in a place without government. In a state of nature, people might feel free to do anything they want to do. However, their rights would not be protected and they would feel insecure. Locke argued that people should agree with one another to give up some of their freedom in exchange for protection and security. They should consent to follow some laws in exchange for the protection that these laws would give them. This agreement is called a social compact or social contract. A social compact is an agreement people make among themselves to create a government to rule them and protect their natural rights. In this agreement the people consent to obey the laws created by that government.
a diverse society
A Diverse Society

Chapter 3 Section 4

family life in colonial america
Family Life in Colonial America
  • Population Growth
    • (1640-1700) 25,000 to 250,000
    • (1750s) I million
    • (1770s) 2.5 million
  • Women in Colonial Society
    • In the 1700s, the status of women improved
      • Consent to sell land
      • Operating businesses
  • Health and Disease
    • Improvements in housing and sanitation helped American colonists resist some diseases.
    • Cotton Mather develops a small pox vaccinein Boston (1721)
africans in colonial america
Africans in Colonial America
  • Africans Build a New Culture
    • Developed own language, religious practices, musical forms
  • Oppression and Resistance
    • Authority was maintained through harsh means.
    • Passive resistance
    • Stono Rebellion, 1739
      • 75 Africans overpowered their white overseers then headed south to Spanish Florida.
      • Local militia ended the rebellion, killing 30-40 Africans.
the enlightenment
The Enlightenment
  • Challenged the authority of the church in science and philosophy while elevating the power of human reason.
  • Rationalism- emphasis on logic and reason
    • John Locke’s Essay on Human Understanding
    • Montesquieu and Separation of Political Power
      • Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches
the great awakening
The Great Awakening
  • Pietism- stressed an individuals piety or devoutness and an emotional union with God.
  • Ministers held revivals, large public meetings for preaching and prayer.
  • This revival of religious feelings was known as the Great Awakening.
  • Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield
  • Effects:
    • Divided congregations in New England
    • Baptists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Methodists
    • New African Christian culture on plantations