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Cooling Solutions. Presented by Paul Almond – Datacentre UK. The Facts. Energy costs are rising. The cost to power and cool server room equipment now exceeds the purchase cost on a 3-year life-cycle, based on a traditional server room / data centre configuration. Cooling Solutions.

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cooling solutions

Cooling Solutions

Presented by

Paul Almond – Datacentre UK


The Facts

Energy costs are rising

The cost to power and cool server room equipment

now exceeds the purchase cost on a 3-year life-cycle, based on a traditional server room / data centre configuration.


Cooling Solutions

The Aim

  • •  Reduce energy usage
  • •  Create more efficient rack space

The government will be introducing a carbon tax in 2009

All companies will have to report power usage by law


Industry Studies

Recent studies reveal that data centre power densities have increasedten-fold in the last 10 years

and that cooling represents upwards of 60-70% of the total data centre power spend for the majority of customers. These costs are driven by the data centre power requirements and the volume of cooling airflow required

Source HP


Cooling Challenges

What are the cooling challenges in today’s data centres?

  • Agility – the ability of a system to adapt to change – increasing and unpredictable power densities driven by ever-changing business requirements.
  • Availability – to eliminate hotspots and vertical temperature gradients at the face of the rack and to assure redundancy when required.
  • Lifecycle costs– to optimise capital investment and available space – the ability to accelerate speed of deployment and lower maintenance costs, increase ROI and maximise operational efficiency.
  • Manageability– Simple and intuitive configuration – predictive failure analysis and provision of cooling performance data.
  • Serviceability– Decrease mean time to recover – simplify complexity – easier service procedures – minimise multi-vendor solutions.



49.6 l/s/kW

(223.2 l/s @ 4.5kW)

75.5 l/s/kW

Typical1U Server

Typical7U Blade Server

Cooling Solutions



It is not only direction of airflow that must be taken into consideration, but also

temperature rise across the server and the air volume required by the server fans.

Blade servers are the most electrically efficient form of server. Available blade types for a

given blade server system can vary dramatically in performance and power consumption


Existing Configurations

Room Based Cooling

The predominant architecture for cooling data centres since the inception of the mainframe has been raised floor air delivery from perimeter computer room air conditioners (CRAC).

At lower densities (1 – 5 kW / rack), adequate cooling is provided to IT equipment, despite the mixing of air throughout the room.


Existing Configurations

Row Based Cooling

  • Place the air conditioning units in the row of rack enclosures.
  • Incorporating a hot / cold aisle design, heat is removed from the hot aisle as it is dispelled from the IT equipment. The hot air is then cooled and discharged to the cold aisle.
  • Inherent energy efficiency advantages:
  • - fan power reduction to move the air
  • - shift in mindset from cold air supply to heat removal
  • - removal of heat before it has a chance to mix with surrounding air in the room makes the remaining areas in the room a large available volume of supply air
  • - length scale for air delivery is only a few metres or less (varies on number of racks) rather than tens of metres

Note: In-row cooling architecture, as depicted, utilises a free air discharge without ducting or any containment of hot or cold air streams.


Cooling Solutions

  • Eliminate the supply air from the equation
    • Capture all the heat where it is generated, from the hot aisle
    • Remove the heat before it mixes with air streams outside the hot aisle
    • No obstructions to block the air path
  • Avoid complex engineering
    • Variable speed fans to match cooling capacity to power load in each aisle
    • Room temperatures will be easier to maintain with less warm air escaping the hot aisle

Close Coupled Cooling


Cooling Solutions

How do I cool my

data centre forFREE?


Cooling Solutions

Free-Cooling Chillers

  • Use ambient air to cool the warm return water
  • Ideally suited to new designs, but free-cooling options can be retro-fitted to existing installations

Cooling Solutions


Water Circuit Schematic


Free-Cooling Solutions

Extra bits


Water Circuit Schematic


Free-Cooling Solutions


– Average

Air Temperature


Free-Cooling Solutions


– Air Temperature

vs Free-Cooling %


Free-Cooling Solutions

Free-Cooling Chillers

  • Air cooled systems: typically 100kW-1200kW
  • Uses condenser fans only (i.e. no compressors) to pre-cool the returning chilled water (in free cooling mode)
  • Compressors only run if the required leaving water temperature cannot be achieved with free-cooling system
  • Lower compressor run time = less maintenance and less down- time
  • Capital payback typically <18 months EVEN FOR WORST CASE N+1: real bottom-line savings thereafter
  • Maximised benefits using elevated chilled water temperatures, e.g. Hot Aisle Containment applications

Free-Cooling Solutions

Free-Cooling Chillers

  • What do I need to do to be able to utilise free cooling?
  • Create predictable air flow
  • Capture and Contain hot air to maximise return air temp
  • Raise entering water temperature
  • Water is 350% more efficient than air at transferring and
  • transporting heat

Air Containment

Raised Floor Airflow


Air Containment

Row Based Cooling With HAC



Air Containment

Hot Aisle Airflow


Free-Cooling Solutions

Free-Cooling Cost Saving Summary

  • 120kW N+1 installation with Free-Cooling Chillers
  • Achieve pay-back of the cost difference to standard
  • chillers in <10 months for one machine; 18 months for worst- case, two-machine N+1 installations
  • Typically achieve 100% Free-Cooling of data centre 26%
  • (>3 months) of the year
  • Achieve a useable level of Free-Cooling for >75%
  • of the year
  • Based on UK average daily temperatures measured in the SE region, 1997 to 2006 inclusive

Cooling Solutions

Alternative options for energy efficient cooling solutions

  • Turbocor Chillers
  • Very high efficiency, especially at lower loads
  • Centrifugal compressor with magnetic bearings eliminates oil and the maintenance / efficiency losses associated with traditional systems
  • Combine with FREE-COOLING for maximum effect

Cooling Solutions

Turbocor Summary Benefits

  • Government ECA approval status
  • Excellent full load energy efficiency
  • Further improved part load performance
  • Lower energy bills, reduced carbon footprint
  • Virtually no mechanical wear
  • Unrivalled reliability
  • No oil to degrade the system over time
  • Low noise
  • No vibration
  • Full remote monitoring capability
  • 30% lower overall life cycle costs

Cooling Solutions

Free Cooling - If you’re still not convinced...

Energy–Efficiency Loans

Interest-free unsecured loans of between £5,000 and £100,000 are available for small and medium sized businesses who are investing in an energy-saving project. Coupled with the ECA scheme this offers business really significant savings. *

Free Energy Surveys

If your energy bill is higher than £50,000 per year, then you may qualify for a FREE energy survey to provide you with a practical action plan of energy saving measures tailored to your business. *

* Carbon Trust


Cooling Solutions

The Bottom Line

  • Two major benefits for business
  • The Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA) Scheme and the Energy Technology List
  • Energy savings
  • Products listed on the ETL are highly energy efficient, and should produce significant long-term financial benefits by reducing your energy bills and Climate Change Levy payments.