Chapter 11 understanding the basics of injury rehabilitation
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Chapter 11: Understanding the Basics of Injury Rehabilitation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 11: Understanding the Basics of Injury Rehabilitation. Therapeutic Exercise Exercise used as part of a rehabilitation program Conditioning Exercise Activities that are used to minimize injury and maximize performance . Philosophy of Athletic Injury Rehabilitation.

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  • Therapeutic Exercise Rehabilitation

    • Exercise used as part of a rehabilitation program

  • Conditioning Exercise

    • Activities that are used to minimize injury and maximize performance

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Philosophy of Athletic Injury Rehabilitation Rehabilitation

  • While the majority of injuries do not involve long-term rehabilitation programs those that do require supervision of highly trained professionals

    • Coach should rely on athletic trainer to design, implement, and supervise rehabilitation

    • Coach is limited in the extent to which he/she can legally be involved in supervising or designing program

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  • Swelling and pain control should be provided immediately Rehabilitation

    • Coach can be involved initially in application of first aid

  • Goal of athlete

    • Return to activity as quickly and as safely as possible

  • Must be prudent in decisions regarding aggressiveness of treatment/rehabilitation

    • A mistake in judgment by the individual in-charge of the rehabilitation could hinder the athlete’s return

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Basic Components and Goals of a Rehabilitation Program Rehabilitation

  • Must address several basic components

  • Short term goals

    • Provide correct and immediate first aid to control swelling

    • Control pain

    • Restore full ROM

    • Restore core stability

    • Restore and increase strength, endurance and power

    • Re-establish neuromuscular control and balance

    • Maintain levels of cardiorespiratory fitness

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Providing Correct First Aid and Controlling Swelling Rehabilitation

  • Initial first aid is critical

  • Should be directed towards swelling control

  • Utilize the PRICE principle

    • Each factor is critical in limiting swelling

  • Coach should be capable of providing first aid regardless of whether an ATC is present

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Controlling Pain Rehabilitation

  • Some degree of pain will be experienced

    • Pain will be dependent on the severity of the injury, athlete’s response, perception of pain and the circumstances

  • PRICE and additional modalities (electrical stimulation, heat…etc.) can be used to help modulate pain

  • Pain can interfere w/ rehab and therefore must be addressed throughout the rehab process

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Restoring Range of Motion Rehabilitation

  • Injury to a joint will always be associated w/ some loss of motion

    • Due to contracture of connective tissue or resistance to stretch of musculotendinous unit

  • Athlete will need to engage in dynamic, static or PNF stretching activities to improve flexibility

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Restore Core Stability Rehabilitation

  • Involves strengthening the lumbopelvic region and is critical for dynamic functional strength and movement

  • Without proximal core stability, distal extremity function become compromised

    • Core strength & power must be emphasized early in the strength training program

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Restoring Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power Rehabilitation

  • Among the most essential factors necessary when restoring function of a body part to pre-injury status

  • Variety of techniques can be utilized

    • Isometrics

    • Progressive resistance

    • Isokinetics

    • Plyometrics

  • Emphasize work through a full ROM

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  • Isometrics Rehabilitation

    • Performed in early part of rehab following period of immobilization

    • Used when resistance through full range could make injury worse

    • Increase static strength, work to decrease/limit atrophy, create a muscle pump to decrease swelling

  • Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE)

    • Can be performed using a variety of equipment

    • Utilizes isotonic contractions to generate force while muscle changes length

    • Concentric and eccentric strengthening exercises should be utilized

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  • Isokinetic Exercise Rehabilitation

    • Incorporated in later stage of rehabilitation process

    • Uses fixed speeds w/ accommodating resistance to provide maximal resistance throughout ROM

    • Speed of movement can be altered

    • Commonly used as part of the criteria for return to functional activity

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  • Plyometric Exercise Rehabilitation

    • Incorporated into later stages of program

    • Use quick stretch of muscle to facilitate subsequent concentric contraction

    • Useful in production of dynamic movements

      • Associated with muscular power

      • Generation of force rapidly – key to successful performance in many activities

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Re-establishing Neuromuscular Control Rehabilitation

  • Neuromuscular control is mind’s attempt to teach the body conscious control of a specific movement

  • Relies on CNS to interpret and integrate sensory and movement information and then control muscles and joints to produce coordinated movement

  • Re-establishing neuromuscular control requires repetition of same movement, step by step until it becomes automatic (progression from simple to difficult task)

  • Functional exercises are critical for re-establishing control

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Regaining Balance Rehabilitation

  • Ability to balance and maintain postural stability is essential to reacquiring athletic skills

  • Program should incorporate functional exercises that involve balance training

  • Failure to include balance training may predispose the athlete to re-injury

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  • When balance is challenged the response is reflexive and automatic

  • The primary mechanism for controlling balance occurs in the joints of the lower extremity

  • The ability to balance and maintain it is critical for athletes

  • If an athlete lacks balance or postural stability following injury, they may also lack proprioceptive and kinesthetic information or muscular strength which may limit their ability to generate an adequate response to disequilibrium

  • A rehabilitation plan must incorporate functional activities that incorporate balance and proprioceptive training

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Maintaining Cardiorespiratory Fitness automatic

  • Single most neglected component of rehabilitation

  • When injury occurs athlete is forced to miss training time which results in decreased cardiorespiratory endurance unless training occurs to help maintain it

  • Alternative activities must be substituted that allow athlete to maintain fitness

    • Put into rehabilitation program as early as possible in rehabilitation program

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Functional Progressions automatic

  • Involves a series of gradually progressive activities designed to prepare the individual for return to a specific sport/activity

  • Sport-specific skills are broken into separate components

    • Athlete works to reacquire skills over time

  • Should be incorporated into treatment as early as possible

    • Athlete’s physical tolerance must be monitored

  • If pain and swelling do not arise, the activity can be advanced -- new activities should be added as quickly as possible

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Functional Testing pain-free ROM, strength and neuromuscular control

  • Uses functional progression drills for the purpose of assessing the athlete’s ability to perform a specific activity

  • Entails a single maximal effort to gauge how close the athlete is to full return

  • Pre-season baseline testing for comparison post injury

  • Variety of tests

    • Shuttle runs -Vertical jumps

    • Agility runs -Balance

    • Figure 8’s -Hopping for distance

    • Cariocca tests -Co-contraction test

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Using Therapeutic Modalities pain-free ROM, strength and neuromuscular control

  • Incorporated into rehabilitation program as adjuncts to exercise

    • Cryotherapy and thermotherapy

    • Ultrasound and electrical stimulation

    • Massage and traction

  • Require special instruction and supervised clinical experience

  • In absence of ATC coach may opt for simple modalities within scope of expertise

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Ice Packs (Bags) pain-free ROM, strength and neuromuscular control

  • Used for minimizing swelling and analgesia following injury

  • Ice may be flaked or crushed and will be encapsulated in wet towel or plastic bag

    • Both are easily moldable to body

  • Elastic wrap generally utilized to secure pack in place for 20 minutes

  • Compression and elevation are also used in conjunction with ice

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Hot Packs pain-free ROM, strength and neuromuscular control

  • Used post-acutely (after swelling stops)

    • Increase blood flow

    • Facilitate reabsorption of injury by-products

  • Useful as analgesic and for relaxation effects

  • Be careful not to use too soon in healing process

    • Cold should be used for first 72 hours post- injury

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  • Moist heat packs (hydrocollator packs) pain-free ROM, strength and neuromuscular control

    • Silicate gel in cotton pads

    • Maintained in thermostatically controlled hot water (160oF)

    • Retain water and relatively constant heat for 20-30 minutes

    • Requires the use of 6 layers of toweling to avoid burning patient

    • Athlete should not lie on top of pack

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Massage pain-free ROM, strength and neuromuscular control

  • Systematic manipulation of soft tissues of the body

  • Involves gliding, compressing, stretching, percussing, and vibrating

    • Produce specific responses in athlete

  • Causes mechanical, physiological and psychological responses

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  • Mechanical responses are direct result of graded pressures and movements of the hand on the body

  • Uses:

    • Encourage lymph drainage

    • Stretch superficial scar tissue

    • Stretch connective tissue (friction massage)

    • Increase circulation – due to increased metabolism

      • Helps to remove lactic acid or edema

      • Assist normal venous blood return to heart

    • Relaxation

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Criteria for Full Return to Activity and movements of the hand on the body

  • Rehab plan must determine what is meant by complete recovery

    • Athlete is fully reconditioned, achieved full ROM, strength, neuromuscular control, cardiovascular fitness and sports specific functional skills

    • Athlete is mentally prepared

  • The decision to return to play should be a group decision (sports medicine team)

    • Team physician is ultimately responsible