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אופן הציטוט המומלץ מחמרי יום העיון: שם המרצה, שנה, שם ההרצאה, הוצג ביום עיון בנושא "בין הלשון המדוברת ללשון הכתובה, השלכות על רכישת האוריינות בקרב דוברי ערבית כשפת אם", היזמה למחקר יישומי בחינוך, האקדמיה הלאומית הישראלית למדעים.
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שם המרצה, שנה, שם ההרצאה, הוצג ביום עיון בנושא
"בין הלשון המדוברת ללשון הכתובה, השלכות על רכישת האוריינות בקרב דוברי ערבית כשפת אם", היזמה למחקר יישומי בחינוך, האקדמיה הלאומית הישראלית למדעים.
Julie A. Washington
University of Wisconsin-Madison
February 21, 2008
Presented in Van Leer, Jerusalem
This low prestige position has had a significant impact on repeated attempts to introduce AAE into schools and has negatively impacted teacher’s and society’s expectations of African American children.
Linguistic scholars (Walt Wolfram, William Labov, Roger Shuy, Joan Baratz, and Ralph Fasold) demonstrated that AAE is a legitimate dialect of English rather than a deficient form of it.
However… it has not been so easy to convince the education establishment.
Dialect readers were reading texts/story books that were written in AAE and were designed to be used as a way to use the child’s community language, AAE, as a way to improve reading instruction by beginning where the child was linguistically and progressing toward use of Standard American English (SAE).African American English and Education
1a) Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. This man came to Jesus by night and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him."
(1b) It was a man named Nicodemus. He was a leader of the Jews. This man, he come to Jesus in the night and say, "Rabbi, we know you a teacher that come from God, cause can't nobody do the things you be doing 'cept he got God with him."
These rules were not well understood at the time that dialect readers were developed and so the readers were stilted and “unauthentic” in their presentation of dialect. Neither teachers, nor students liked them.
The educational community was outraged that this “poor English” would be used in books and classrooms. It still was widely believed outside of universities that the dialect was an impoverished form of English that should not be perpetuated by schools.Dialect Readers
Nationally, this continues to be the prevailing view of dialect use in classrooms. It is in our school districts and universities where these views are changing.
There is a gap in achievement between African American children and their peers that has been longstanding and intractable. The gap in reading achievement has been of particular concern because reading undergirds all academic subjects, including mathematics, science, language arts, and social studies.The Achievement Gap
In 2003 only 12% of African American 4th graders reached the “proficient” levels on the National Assement of Educational Progress (NAEP) and 61% did not reach ‘basic’ levels.
AAE represents an inherent mismatch between the language that most African American children learn to speak in their homes and that which they will encounter in schools.The Achievement Gap
Performance of 65 typically developing 2nd through 5th graders in an Urban community:
13 2nd graders
27 3rd graders
11 4th graders
14 5th graders
32 boys and 33 girls
30% overall were low income
Of 1,740 variations from print, 21% could be characterized as AAE features
A dialect shift occurred at 3rd grade, reducing feature production from 1 feature per every approximately 20 words to 1 feature for every approximately 50 wordsAAE and Literacy
African American students use AAE in writing if they use it in oral language
African American students who can write in SAE can also speak SAE
Writing is both a bridge and a mirror into code-switching with African American students
One day me and my mom was(were) at home because we was(were) about to go. I went outside. I was waiting. I open(ed) the garage and get(got) my bike out. I went ride?? for a minite(minute) and nobody was out. So I went back inside and went to my mom(‘s) room and she was watching TV and I tune(d) off to TV and tooed(told) my mom to stop watching TV. So we had play(ed) a game call lonede. My mom had mast up 3 time(s) on the game and she got it write. Then we went to the store. I had buy(bought) some chips, candy and a juice.3rd grade Writing sample: unedited
I pay two dollars and fifty cent(s) every day, and I want my lunch to be good if it cost(s) so much. The lunch makes my stomach hurt, and I have no energy after I am done eating lunch. Three thing(s) I think we should eat at lunch is(are)…
#1 FRUIT fruit is healthy, and taste(s) better than the food we eat in are(our) lunch. We have some fruit in are(our) lunch, but we don’t have enough. We have peaches and oranges, but we don’t have fruit like apples, bananas, or cherries. Everybody needs more than two varieties of fruit.
#2 DRINKS we should have different varieties to dring. All we have to drink is plain or chocolate mile. Some times I want bottle(d) water or kool-aid. Some times the milk is spoiled to. If we had orange juice or something more people would eat lunch.7th grade Writing Sample: third and final edited version
Step Three: Teachers make an explicit distinction between “school language” and “home language” during instruction and when referencing the dialect.
**Improves students meta-awareness**The Future for AAE Speakers: Code-switching in the Classroom
Students, teachers, and administrators have to develop a common vocabulary and expectations for code-switching. Students become “partners” in code-switching instruction.The Future for AAE Speakers: Code-switching in the Classroom
Nationally, there is low tolerance for including “heritage languages” in instructional contexts, but locally teachers and administrators are beginning to acknowledge the value of using the child’s community language to inform instruction.Conclusions
Reading is essentially a language skill. Engaging the student linguistically is necessary for literacy to develop as expected.
Identifying and acknowledging the role of the home language is critical if progress is to be made toward improvement of poor reading performance.