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אופן הציטוט המומלץ מחמרי יום העיון: שם המרצה, שנה, שם ההרצאה, הוצג ב PowerPoint Presentation
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אופן הציטוט המומלץ מחמרי יום העיון: שם המרצה, שנה, שם ההרצאה, הוצג ב - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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אופן הציטוט המומלץ מחמרי יום העיון: שם המרצה, שנה, שם ההרצאה, הוצג ביום עיון בנושא "בין הלשון המדוברת ללשון הכתובה, השלכות על רכישת האוריינות בקרב דוברי ערבית כשפת אם", היזמה למחקר יישומי בחינוך, האקדמיה הלאומית הישראלית למדעים.

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אופן הציטוט המומלץ מחמרי יום העיון:

שם המרצה, שנה, שם ההרצאה, הוצג ביום עיון בנושא

"בין הלשון המדוברת ללשון הכתובה, השלכות על רכישת האוריינות בקרב דוברי ערבית כשפת אם", היזמה למחקר יישומי בחינוך, האקדמיה הלאומית הישראלית למדעים.

language literacy and linguistic differences the case of african american english

Language, Literacy, and Linguistic Differences: The case of African American English

Julie A. Washington

University of Wisconsin-Madison

February 21, 2008

Presented in Van Leer, Jerusalem

african american english

A systematic, rule-governed variation of English

  • Used by most African Americans in the United States
  • Rooted in slavery
  • Developed as an oral language with no written counterpart
  • A low prestige dialect whose legitimacy is still debated in some circles
African American English
african american english1

Considered by many to be a poor reproduction of Standard English

  • Linguists challenged this view and changed the perception of dialect in academic circles by carefully documenting the rules and regularities that characterize this linguistic system.
African American English
aae adds and deletes bound morphemes

Zero Possessive

  • Zero Past Tense
  • Zero Plural
  • Third person singular -s
  • I ride in my brother car
  • And then he fix__ the food
  • A girl puttin’ some glass_ on the table.
  • Sometimes she wear__ a baseball cap.
AAE adds and deletes bound morphemes
transformations of the main verb or verb phrase

Deletion of the copula/auxiliary

  • Subject-Verb Agreement
  • Habitual be
  • Remote past been
  • He __ runnin’ fast
  • He __ hungry.
  • They was lookin’ for the big dog.
  • He begettin’ some ice cream
  • I beenknowin’ how to swim.
Transformations of the main verb or verb phrase
pronominal differences

Undifferentiated pronoun case

  • Regularized reflexive
  • Appositive Pronoun
  • Them pullin’ them up the hill.”
  • He hurt hisself when he fell off his bike
  • My mama she took me to the movies
Pronominal Differences

Fitna/sposeta/bouta (communicates imminent action

  • Multiple negation
  • Double modal
  • I’m fitna go outside.
  • I’m bouta ride my bike)
  • He ain’tnever got no candy no how.
  • I’m am going to see if I can go.
the sound system also is affected

f /θ , v/ðand t/ θ in intervocalic and postvocalic positions

  • d/ð in prevocalic positions
  • Consonant cluster reduction
  • Wif/with; bave/bathe; wit/with
  • Dis/this; dem/them
  • Col-/cold
The Sound System also is affected
history of aae

The history of AAE is critically important to consider:

    • It evolved from slavery;
    • Represents a “creolization” of English that developed to allow slaves from different African countries to communicate with each other;
    • Was/is considered a simplification/poor reproduction of English grammar;
    • Consequently, AAE has had little prestige as a dialect of English – it is associated with underemployment, oppression, and undereducation because it is considered by many to represent ignorance and poverty, encouraging discrimination against its users.
history of aae1

This low prestige position has had a significant impact on repeated attempts to introduce AAE into schools and has negatively impacted teacher’s and society’s expectations of African American children.

    • Martin Luther King Junior Elementary School Children et al. v. Ann Arbor School District, 1979;
    • Ebonics Controversy, 1996
History of AAE
history of aae2

Linguistic scholars (Walt Wolfram, William Labov, Roger Shuy, Joan Baratz, and Ralph Fasold) demonstrated that AAE is a legitimate dialect of English rather than a deficient form of it.

  • After considerable debate, most University professors and other researchers were convinced by the scientific evidence.
History of AAE
aae and education

However… it has not been so easy to convince the education establishment.

  • An early attempt to introduce dialect into the educational system occurred in the form of dialect readers.
AAE and Education
african american english and education

Dialect readers were reading texts/story books that were written in AAE and were designed to be used as a way to use the child’s community language, AAE, as a way to improve reading instruction by beginning where the child was linguistically and progressing toward use of Standard American English (SAE).

African American English and Education
dialect readers

1a) Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. This man came to Jesus by night and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him."

  • Jesus answered him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God." (SE, Revised Standard Version, p. 149)
Dialect Readers
dialect readers1

(1b) It was a man named Nicodemus. He was a leader of the Jews. This man, he come to Jesus in the night and say, "Rabbi, we know you a teacher that come from God, cause can't nobody do the things you be doing 'cept he got God with him."

  • Jesus, he tell him say, "This ain't no jive, if a man ain't born over again, ain' no way he gonna get to know God." (AAVE version, p. 150)
Dialect Readers
dialect readers2

These readers were a resounding failure:

  • AAE is a dialect that developed in the oral rather than the written domain. Accordingly, the rules for inclusion and exclusion of dialect features are governed largely by the conversational context.
Dialect Readers
dialect readers3

These rules were not well understood at the time that dialect readers were developed and so the readers were stilted and “unauthentic” in their presentation of dialect. Neither teachers, nor students liked them.

  • More important, research suggested that while they made students feel good about having books that validated there community language, they were not successful for helping students move toward standard classroom language
Dialect Readers
dialect readers4

The educational community was outraged that this “poor English” would be used in books and classrooms. It still was widely believed outside of universities that the dialect was an impoverished form of English that should not be perpetuated by schools.

Dialect Readers
aae and education1

Nationally, this continues to be the prevailing view of dialect use in classrooms. It is in our school districts and universities where these views are changing.

  • However…. teachers and parents are becoming more open to considering the role of dialect in education as the national spotlight has focused on the gap in achievement between African American and White children
AAE and Education
the achievement gap

There is a gap in achievement between African American children and their peers that has been longstanding and intractable. The gap in reading achievement has been of particular concern because reading undergirds all academic subjects, including mathematics, science, language arts, and social studies.

The Achievement Gap
the achievement gap1

In 2003 only 12% of African American 4th graders reached the “proficient” levels on the National Assement of Educational Progress (NAEP) and 61% did not reach ‘basic’ levels.

  • By 8th grade only 7% reached proficient levels (Education Trust, 2003).
The Achievement Gap
the achievement gap2

AAE represents an inherent mismatch between the language that most African American children learn to speak in their homes and that which they will encounter in schools.

The Achievement Gap
dialectal variation and literacy skills

Performance of 65 typically developing 2nd through 5th graders in an Urban community:

13 2nd graders

27 3rd graders

11 4th graders

14 5th graders

32 boys and 33 girls

30% overall were low income

  • Gray Oral Reading Test-3 (GORT-3)
Dialectal Variation and Literacy Skills
dialectal variation and literacy skills1


  • 13 passages consisting of one topic centered paragraph;
  • Passages vary in length, syntactic complexity, and vocabulary difficulty as test progresses;
  • Appropriate for children 7:0 – 18:11 years of age;
Dialectal Variation and Literacy Skills
dialectal variation and literacy skills2

Scoring results in a raw score, SS, AE, and %iles;

  • Assesses students’ reading fluency (rate and accuracy), and comprehension
  • Rate and Accuracy result in Passage Score; there is a Comprehension Score; and an Oral Reading Quotient (ORQ) which combines the Fluency & Comprehension component.
Dialectal Variation and Literacy Skills
dialectal variation and literacy skills3

We scored Variations from Print as miscues or AAE;

  • 9 types of miscues ranging from substitutions of words with similar functions (pronoun/pronoun) to self-corrections, to omission of words from the passage;
Dialectal Variation and Literacy Skills
dialectal variation and literacy skills4

Self corrections were examined further for their relationship to AAE

  • Passages were scored twice:
    • once to identify all variations from print and,
    • then to identify variations that were consistent with AAE
Dialectal Variation and Literacy Skills
dialectal variation and literacy skills5


  • 60/65 students (92%) used AAE during oral reading;
  • No statistically significant gender or SES differences in scoring using either published or AAE scoring credits
  • GORT-3 standard scores control for grade, so no systematic variation.
Dialectal Variation and Literacy Skills
dialectal variation and literacy skills6

Of 1,740 variations from print, 21% could be characterized as AAE features

  • Low, negative correlation between overall use of dialect and Accuracy (r = -.35, p = .006), and Rate (r = -.26, p = .04)
  • That is, as use of AAE increased, rate and accuracy decreased.
Dialectal Variation and Literacy Skills
dialectal variation and literacy skills7


  • GORT-3 was normally distributed, and appears appropriate for use with AA children;
  • AAE is produced while reading SAE texts aloud;
  • Some students appeared to improve SAE accuracy in a trade-off with rate
Dialectal Variation and Literacy Skills
aae and literacy

A dialect shift occurred at 3rd grade, reducing feature production from 1 feature per every approximately 20 words to 1 feature for every approximately 50 words

AAE and Literacy
what about writing
What about writing?

African American students use AAE in writing if they use it in oral language

African American students who can write in SAE can also speak SAE

Writing is both a bridge and a mirror into code-switching with African American students

3 rd grade writing sample unedited

October 12, 2007

Writing Journal

My Mom

One day me and my mom was(were) at home because we was(were) about to go. I went outside. I was waiting. I open(ed) the garage and get(got) my bike out. I went ride?? for a minite(minute) and nobody was out. So I went back inside and went to my mom(‘s) room and she was watching TV and I tune(d) off to TV and tooed(told) my mom to stop watching TV. So we had play(ed) a game call lonede. My mom had mast up 3 time(s) on the game and she got it write. Then we went to the store. I had buy(bought) some chips, candy and a juice.

3rd grade Writing sample: unedited
7 th grade writing sample third and final edited version

Dear, cafeteria manager

I pay two dollars and fifty cent(s) every day, and I want my lunch to be good if it cost(s) so much. The lunch makes my stomach hurt, and I have no energy after I am done eating lunch. Three thing(s) I think we should eat at lunch is(are)…

#1 FRUIT fruit is healthy, and taste(s) better than the food we eat in are(our) lunch. We have some fruit in are(our) lunch, but we don’t have enough. We have peaches and oranges, but we don’t have fruit like apples, bananas, or cherries. Everybody needs more than two varieties of fruit.

#2 DRINKS we should have different varieties to dring. All we have to drink is plain or chocolate mile. Some times I want bottle(d) water or kool-aid. Some times the milk is spoiled to. If we had orange juice or something more people would eat lunch.

7th grade Writing Sample: third and final edited version
student aae and linguistic skills craig washington 1994 1995
At school entry, LSES preschoolers who were the heaviest feature producers, were also producing the most advanced syntax and semanticsStudent AAE and Linguistic Skills (Craig & Washington, 1994, 1995)
aae and reading achievement

This advantage disappears almost immediately after children enter school.

  • Students who have not learned to use the school language code by the end of third grade are one or more grade levels behind by the time they get to 4th or 5th grade!
AAE and Reading Achievement
the future for aae speakers code switching in the classroom

Step One: Buy In!

  • Teachers receive on going professional development designed to familiarize them with dialectal variations.
  • An important focus is agreement on the need for teaching children to use the standard classroom code
The Future for AAE Speakers: Code-switching in the Classroom
the future for aae speakers code switching in the classroom1

Language is an ethnic and peer identity issue!

  • Step Two: With older children – Buy In!
  • The goal is to have teachers and students recognize that these are cultural language forms and are to be respected. Research demonstrates that when teachers are familiarized with AAE features that they are more sensitive and effective in their approach to teaching SAE.
The Future for AAE Speakers: Code-switching in the Classroom
the future for aae speakers code switching in the classroom2

Step Three: Teachers make an explicit distinction between “school language” and “home language” during instruction and when referencing the dialect.

  • In reading, writing, and oral language a contrastive approach is used to move the students toward use of the standard classroom language code.

**Improves students meta-awareness**

The Future for AAE Speakers: Code-switching in the Classroom
the future for aae speakers code switching in the classroom3

Contrastive Analysis:

    • Orally: Modeling, expansion, elicited imitation
    • Writing: Encourage student writing. Where dialect occurs, write standard sentence above or below and discuss differences. When students’ become more familiar with standard forms, they will change them independently;
    • Reading: Oral reading in small groups where teachers can guide decoding of “every word and every sound.”
The Future for AAE Speakers: Code-switching in the Classroom
the future for aae speakers code switching in the classroom4

Students, teachers, and administrators have to develop a common vocabulary and expectations for code-switching. Students become “partners” in code-switching instruction.

The Future for AAE Speakers: Code-switching in the Classroom

Nationally, there is low tolerance for including “heritage languages” in instructional contexts, but locally teachers and administrators are beginning to acknowledge the value of using the child’s community language to inform instruction.


Reading is essentially a language skill. Engaging the student linguistically is necessary for literacy to develop as expected.

  • Students who use languages or dialects that differ from the school language or dialect are disadvantaged from the outset.

Identifying and acknowledging the role of the home language is critical if progress is to be made toward improvement of poor reading performance.

  • Research provides the information that teachers and other practitioners need to make informed decisions about how to proceed, what to target, and when to begin.

“…In order to bring (African Americans) into the mainstream of American society, schools must take into account the existence of a ''home language'' if it is different from standard English.”

-Federal District Judge Charles W. Joiner

(The Ann Arbor Black English decision, 1979)