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Journal of the Day. Why is it important to know who is in your country? (8 sent). Population & Urbanization. Chapter 16. Demography. Ch. 16.1 P. 530-535 Learning Objective: Learn the three processes of population: fertility, mortality, migration. Demography.

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Journal of the day
Journal of the Day

  • Why is it important to know who is in your country? (8 sent)



Ch. 16.1

P. 530-535

Learning Objective:

Learn the three processes of population: fertility, mortality, migration


  • Definition: The scientific study of population

  • Why do people study populations?

    • It affects the social structure, especially in crowded areas

    • Look for patterns in order to predict behavior

    • Plan ahead for the future based on population shifts


  • Definition: group of people living in a specific geographic place at a specific time

  • Factors of population:

    • Number of people (size)

    • Distribution (where & how are they located)

    • Composition (groups)

    • Ages in population (age structure)

Three population processes
Three Population Processes

  • Changes in population occur due to:

    • Fertility (births)

    • Mortality (deaths)

    • Migration

Fertility births
Fertility (births)

  • Definition: number of children born each year

  • Measured by crude birthrate: (approximate) number of live births per 1,000 people

  • Fertility rate: births per 1,000 women age 15-44

  • Total fertility rate: avg. kids born in a woman’s life

  • Fecundity: highest number of kids a woman can have in a lifetime (~15)

Mortality deaths
Mortality (deaths)

  • Life Span: longest age humans can survive

  • Life Expectancy: average age a person of a certain population can expect to live to

  • Measured by crude death rate: approximate number of deaths per 1,000 members

    • Infant mortality rate: deaths of children under the age of 1

      • Important because children are first to suffer from poor health conditions

Why are fertility mortality rates important for sociology
Why are fertility & mortality rates important for sociology?

  • Gives general idea of the health of a population

    • Availability of food & health care

    • Distribution of disease

  • Easily illustrates certain social factors

    • Age at marriage

    • Economic development

    • Education status

    • Attitudes towards reproduction and contraception


  • Def: movement of people from one area to another

  • Emigrate: to LEAVE a country/place

  • Immigrate : to COME TO a country/place

  • You emigrate FROM one country and immigrate TO another country

  • Net migration: people entering – people leaving

    • Net migration for Bahrain: +22, 081 (2012)

Opening discussion
Opening Discussion

What’s going on in the world?

Migration assignment
Migration Assignment strange locations?

  • Find a CURRENT (in the last month) news article discussing HUMAN migration patterns.

  • Print the article

  • Write a 15 sentence summary

    • Which area/country are they discussing?

    • Why are people leaving?

    • Where are they going to?

Journal strange locations?

  • If the population goes unchecked (continues to grow), what problems would societies, and the world, face? (8 sentences)

World population

World Population strange locations?

Ch. 16.2

P. 536-546

Learning Objective: Understand population pressure and changes on a global scale

Population growth
Population Growth strange locations?

  • Current population: 7.2 billion people

  • Year AD 1: ~250 million people

    • AD 1650: 500 million (doubled)

    • AD 1800: 1 billion

    • AD 1930: 2 billion

  • Doubling time: time needed for a population to double; typically takes fewer years to double as the population gets bigger


Global population change
Global Population Change strange locations?

Reasons for growth
Reasons for Growth strange locations?

  • More population to increase the population

  • Better nutrition and access to food

  • Better medical care

  • More education

  • Engineered plants, animals, and buildings to withstand natural events

Problems with growth
Problems with Growth strange locations?

  • Thomas Malthus (1798):

    • Population will outpace food supply

    • Poor have larger families and any additional income would incur more births

  • Overcame assumption with ability to grow more food (utilizing scientific discoveries and changing previous habits

Demographic transition model
Demographic Transition Model strange locations?

Dem tran model 2
Dem. Tran. Model 2 strange locations?

Population growth rates
Population Growth Rates strange locations?

Controlling the population
Controlling the Population strange locations?

  • Government decisions to halt population increase in their countries

  • How?

    • Family planning services (birth control, education)

    • Sterilization programs

    • Disincentives (being punished or not receiving rights/privileges for not following rules)

    • Fines

China s one child policy
China’s One Child Policy strange locations?

  • Rural families allowed to have 2 children if first is a female or disabled

  • Ethnic minorities exempt

  • Only child parents allowed to have 2 kids

  • Originally started in 1970s as a 2-child policy to reduce the strain on public services

  • Fines vary as it is a formula based on individual income

Population pyramids
Population Pyramids larger society?

  • Purpose: shows the age and sex of a population

  • Helpful to show dependents (<15 & >64)

Journal population (lots of older people)?

  • What are pros and cons of living in a city? (8 sent.)

The urban transition

The Urban Transition population (lots of older people)?

Ch. 16.3

P. 548-554

Learning Objective: Why do cities develop and what problems arise?

Push pull
Push & Pull population (lots of older people)?

  • Push factors:

    • Why people leave a place

  • Pull factors:

    • Why people move to a new location

Why cities develop
Why Cities Develop population (lots of older people)?

  • Consider where cities spring up

    • Why did New York, Boston, London, Paris, Baghdad, Cairo, Istanbul become such large and important cities?

Overurbanization population (lots of older people)?

  • Too many people come to the city

  • Unable to supply people with jobs or housing

  • Services become overwhelmed

Central city problems
Central City Problems population (lots of older people)?

  • Wealthy people able to move away from inner city to SUBURBS

    • Businesses and jobs follow the people out to suburbs

    • Leaves decrepit buildings

  • Minorities and low income people cannot escape central city

    • No money to support those who need it most

City and soc
City and Soc population (lots of older people)?

  • Industrial Revolution saw people move from agricultural/rural areas to urban areas (cities)

  • Sociology created by understanding challenges that present itself when various people share a common space

Urban ecology

Urban Ecology population (lots of older people)?

Ch. 16.4

p. 556-560

Learning Objective: The effect of city design

Urban ecology1
Urban Ecology population (lots of older people)?

  • Relationships between people and their city environment

  • 4 theories of city growth

    • Concentric zone

    • Sector

    • Multiple nuclei

    • Peripheral

Concentric zone theory
Concentric Zone Theory population (lots of older people)?

  • Growth starts in the central city and circular areas grow out from there

  • “Bull’s Eye Model” or “Burgess Model”

  • “Heart” of city is CBD (central business district)

    • Made up of major gov’t/private buildings and most important businesses

  • Highly influenced by those with money (able to buy land and use it for whatever their purposes are)

  • Example: Chicago

Concentric zones
Concentric Zones population (lots of older people)?

  • Zone in Transition: Lots of change occurring

    • Invasion of the CBD into the next zone

    • Residents leave as more businesses move in

    • Zone doesn’t always become incorporated into CBD

  • Workingmen’s Homes: “Blue collar” jobs

  • Residential Zone: Middle and Upper Middle Class living (“White collar” professions)

  • Commuter’s Zone: Upper class living

Sector theory
Sector Theory population (lots of older people)?

  • Emphasizes transportation routeswhich come from CBD to different zones

  • Growth of urban activities expand along roads, rivers, and railways

  • Does NOT take into account the automobile which makes trade easier

  • Example: Seattle, San Francisco

Sector theory model
Sector Theory Model population (lots of older people)?

Multiple nuclei theory
Multiple Nuclei Theory population (lots of older people)?

  • Influenced by geographic or historical influence, NOT the CBD

  • City has several “centers,” which based on their use attract certain uses while repelling others

  • Works for cities that aren’t described by the concentric zone or sector theories

  • Greater movement because of higher car ownership

  • Example: Boston

Multiple nuclei theory model
Multiple Nuclei Theory Model population (lots of older people)?

Peripheral theory
Peripheral Theory population (lots of older people)?

  • Focuses on the importance of suburbs around the central city

  • Suburbs now contain elements of central city and thus do not need a CBD or other sectors

  • Better suited for newer cities who do not focus on the CBD

Sim city 3000
Sim population (lots of older people)? City 3000

  • Groups no more than 4

  • Create a city (drawn, computer generated)

  • Use models from p. 557 (labeled, color coded)

    • Why did you choose that model (benefits)

  • Must include key/legend

  • Resources available to your country/city

  • Reasons people would come (pull factors)

  • Overall population ( example: Somewhereville, pop. 790,561)

  • Must include services

    • Schools, hospitals, fire/police, gov’t offices, parks, post offices, restaurants

  • Infrastructure

    • Roads, trains, metros, bus, futuristic transport