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Animal Unit. November 8, 2010. Multicellular Organisms. Animals are multicellular organisms. Cells. In multicellular organisms, different cells have different jobs.

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animal unit

Animal Unit

November 8, 2010

multicellular organisms
Multicellular Organisms
  • Animals are multicellular organisms.
  • In multicellular organisms, different cells have different jobs.
  • In a multicellular organism the cells are organized in ways that enable them to survive and reproduce. (In a single-celled organism, all the functions of life are performed by one cell.)
cells are specialized
Cells are Specialized

For Example

  • Blood cells carry oxygen
  • Nerve cells send and receive signals
  • Skin cells provide protection
  • Muscle cells produce movement
  • Cells that work together to carry out a job are organized into tissue.
  • Cells of the same type are organized into tissue.
  • Tissue is a group of cells that work together.

For Example

A muscle is muscle tissue that is made up of many muscle cells.

  • Tissues are organized into organs. Each organ has a particular function (job).
  • Organs are structures that are made up of different tissues. Organs have particular functions.

For Example

The heart is an organ that functions as a pump. It has muscle tissue, which pumps the blood, and nerve tissue, which signals when to pump.

organ system
Organ System
  • Organs are part of different organ systems that meet specific needs of the organism.
organ systems and the organism
Organ systems and the Organism
  • Different organ systems take care of specific needs.

For Example

Nervous System –enables a response to changing conditions.

Muscular System – produces movement and supplies heat.

Respiratory Systems – takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.


Circulatory System – delivers oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

  • Digestive System – breaks down food int a usable form.

Organ systems allow multicellular organisms to obtain large amounts of energy, process large amounts of materials, respond to changes in the environment, and reproduce.

  • Together, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems form an organism.
levels of complexity
Levels of Complexity

This organization is called the levels of complexity.

Cells→Tissue→Organs→Organ System


Specialized structures perform specific functions at all levels of complexity.

For Example:

Leaves on trees

Wings on birds

  • All animals need energy, materials, and living space.
  • Animal get energy and materials from food.
  • Animals have different adaptations and behaviors for meeting their needs.
  • Animals are consumers (they get food from their environment).
  • Most animals have body systems, including tissues and organs.
  • Animals interact with the environment and other animals.
  • Most animals are invertebrates (animals that do not have backbones).
  • Most invertebrate animals are small.
  • Invertebrates can be found just about everywhere (from frozen tundra to tropical forests). Some invertebrates live in water and others survive in deserts.
  • Many organism live inside other organisms.
animals that are invertebrates
Animals That Are Invertebrates
  • Crickets
  • Oysters
  • Sea stars
  • Earthworms
  • Ants
  • Spiders
  • Sponge

Where do they live?

large invertebrates
Large Invertebrates
  • Even though most invertebrates are small a Giant Squid can grow to 18 meters long and can weigh over 450 kilograms.
six groups of invertebrates page 124
Six Groups of Invertebratespage 124
  • Sponges (the simplest animals on Earth). p125
  • Cnidarians (have a central opening surrounded by tentacles). p128
  • Worms (soft, tube-shaped bodies and a distinct head). p132
  • Mollusks ( Have a muscular foot, most have shells – Example: clams, snails, octopuses). Include bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods.p136
  • Echinoderms (water animals that have a central opening for taking in food, have a water vascular system and tube feet – Example: sea stars, sand dollars).p139
  • Arthropods ( have legs, some have wings, are found on land in air and in water – Example: insects, spiders, crabs millipedes). Includes insects, crustaceans, and arachnids.p142
  • Invertebrate
  • Sponge
  • Sessile
  • Larva
  • Cnidarian
  • Tentacles
  • Mobile
  • Mollusk
  • Gill
  • Lung
  • Echinoderm
  • arthropod
  • Radial symmetry
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Exoskeleton
  • Molting
  • insect
  • Metamorphosis
  • segmented
questions to consider
Questions to Consider
  • Which group of animals are most abundant?
  • Is a spider an insect?
  • How are all invertebrates alike?
  • What is the process called when arthropods shed their exoskeleton?
  • Which invertebrate always have three body segments: a head, a thorax, and an abdomen?
  • 1. Arthropods are the most abundant group of animals.
  • 2. A spider is an arachnid. Insects, arachnids, and crustaceans are examples of a larger group of invertebrates called arthropods.
  • 3. All invertebrates lack a backbone.
  • 4. As arthropods grow, the y shed their exoskeleton in a process called molting.
  • 5. Adult insects always have a head, thorax, and adomen.