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The learning ecology : why the promise of an economy of scale has not been achieved. A keynote presentation at the University of Durham, Jan 2013 Allison Littlejohn Director, Caledonian Academy Chair of Learning Technology www.gcu.ac.uk /academy Collaborators :

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slide1

The learning ecology:

why the promise of an economy of scale has not been achieved

A keynote presentation at the University of Durham, Jan 2013

Allison Littlejohn

Director, Caledonian Academy

Chair of Learning Technology

www.gcu.ac.uk/academy

Collaborators:

Dr Isobel falconer, Dr Anoush Margaryan, Dr Colin Milligan,,

Lou McGill, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK

slide2

Key challenge: continual learning

Grand challenge

“The most profound impact of the Internet… is its ability to support and expand the various aspects of social learning”.

“Attention has moved from access to information towards access to other people”.

John Seeley Brown (2008), Minds on Fire

slide3

Scenario 4

Grand challenge

Our times are characterized by immaterial labour...

...labour that is not restricted to material production but penetrates also the political, the social, the cultural, and ultimately life itself.

‘Multitude’, Hardt and Negri, 2004

slide5

Scenario 4

Grand challenge

  • Telepresence
  • Multi-site micro expertise
  • Networked innovation
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Multi site data analysis
slide6

Key challenge: continual learning

Grand challenge

GC: Every graduate from the UK HE sector has the ability, confidence and mindset to plan and implement his/her own learning pathway to achieve his/her learning goals.

slide7

Scenario 4

  • Stepanyan, K, Littlejohn, A & Margaryan, A (2012) Sustainable eLearning, Journal of Educational Technology and Society
slide8

How do learners learn in open, unstructured, networked environments?

  • How can learners be prepared for learning in such environments?
  • What learning approaches prevail?
  • Do inter-relationships change in open, unstructured environments?

Key challenge: continual learning

Grand challenge

slide9

Question 1

How do people learn in open, unstructured, networked environments?

slide10

How do learners learn in unstructured env?

Context:Shell global knowledge sharing networksPeriod: Sept 08-Apr 09Method/instruments: Mixed method: Questionnaire (Cross and Parker, 2004) & semi-structured interviews (critical incident)Sample:survey: n=462 (E46%; N27%; M27%); interviews: n=29 (E41%, N31%, 28%M)

slide12

Connect

How do learners learn in unstructured env?

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide13

Connect

How do learners learn in unstructured env?

  • Consume

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide14

Connect

How do learners learn in unstructured env?

  • Create
  • Consume

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide15

Contribute

  • Connect

How do learners learn in unstructured env?

  • Create
  • Consume

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide16

Contribute

  • Connect

How do learners learn in unstructured env?

  • Create
  • Consume

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide17

Contribute

  • Connect

How do learners learn in unstructured env?

Charting occurs when

each learner maps

his/ her learning

pathway through

planning,

implementing

& reflecting on

learning goals

  • Create
  • Consume

CHARTING

slide18

Contribute

  • Connect

How do learners learn in unstructured env?

Charting occurs when

each learner maps

his/ her learning

pathway through

planning,

implementing

& reflecting on

learning goals

Builds individual &

collective knowledge

  • Create
  • Consume

CHARTING

slide19

Scenario 4

Question 2

How do these knowledge actions relate to approaches to learning?

slide20

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

  • Acquisition Participatory
  • of knowledge
  • Sfard, 1998
slide21

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

  • Knowledge creation
  • Acquisition Participatory
  • of knowledge
  • Sfard, 1998; Paavola, Lipponen, and Hakkarainen, 2004
slide22

Contribute

  • Connect

What learning approaches are used?

Acquisition

  • Create
  • Consume

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide23

Contribute

  • Connect

What learning approaches are used?

  • vidcast lectures
  • OERs
  • Open Courseware
  • x-type MOOC

Acquisition

  • Create
  • Consume

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide24

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

slide25

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

slide26

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

Acquisition

  • Typically sequenced tasks with vidcast lectures, computer marked tests.
  • Little or no interaction with the thousands of other learners
slide27

Contribute

  • Consume

What learning approaches are used?

Participatory

  • Create
  • Connect

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide28

Contribute

  • Consume

What learning approaches are used?

  • online tutorials
  • blended
  • learning
  • cMOOC

Participatory

  • Create
  • Connect

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide29

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

slide30

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

slide31

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

Participatory

  • Typically structure provided by instructor.
  • Learners provide peer support & create/ contribute content
slide32

Contribute

  • Connect

What learning approaches are used?

Knowledge creation

Third type afforded

by networked

technologies

  • Create
  • Consume

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide33

Contribute

  • Connect

What learning approaches are used?

Knowledge creation

Third type afforded

by networked

technologies

  • Create
  • Consume
  • research
  • degrees
  • professional or
  • workplace learning

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide34

Scenario 4

Connecting the individual & collective

Social objects as knowledge is created/shared collectively

See Knorr-Cetina, K (2001), Edwards, A (2011) and Paavola, S., & Hakkarainen, K. (2005). The knowledge creation metaphor: An emergent epistemological approach to learning. Science and Education, 14(6), 535-557

Digital networks used to connect while sensemaking

Siemens, G. (2005) Connectivism: Learning as Network-Creation

http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/networks.htm

Shared goals as a focus for knowledge creation

Littlejohn, A., Milligan, C and Margaryan, A (2012) Charting Collective Knowledge, Journal of Workplace Learning

slide36

Your

goal

You

slide37

Your

goal

You

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

Recommended Resources

slide38

Anyone

Peers with similar goals

People with similar skills

Team

Tutor

External contacts

You

Your

goal

You

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

Recommended Resources

slide39

GROUP

Anyone

Peers with similar goals

People with similar skills

Team

Tutor

External contacts

You

Your

goal

You

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

Recommended Resources

slide40

GROUP

NETWORK

Anyone

Peers with similar goals

People with similar skills

Team

Tutor

External contacts

You

Your

goal

You

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

Recommended Resources

slide41

GROUP

NETWORK

Anyone

Peers with similar goals

People with similar skills

Team

Tutor

External contacts

You

Your

goal

You

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

COLLECTIVE

Recommended Resources

slide42

Anyone

Peers with similar goals

People with similar skills

Team

CONNECT

Tutor

External contacts

You

CONSUME

Your

goal

You

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

Recommended Resources

slide43

Anyone

Peers with similar goals

People with similar skills

Team

CONNECT

Tutor

External contacts

You

CREATE

CONSUME

Your

goal

You

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

Recommended Resources

slide44

Anyone

Peers with similar goals

People with similar skills

Team

CONNECT

CONNECT

Tutor

External contacts

You

CREATE

CONSUME

Your

goal

You

CONTRIBUTE

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

Recommended Resources

slide45

Anyone

Peers with similar goals

You and Your Peers

People with similar skills

Team

CONNECT

CONNECT

Tutor

External contacts

You

CREATE

CONSUME

Your

goals

CONTRIBUTE

Formal Learning

Knowledge Networks

Libraries of Cases / Examples of Practice

Collaborative Spaces

Shared resources (e.g. delicious)

Dynamic Knowledge, e.g. wikis

Your Knowledge

Smart Information

Recommended Resources

slide46

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

The knowledge-creation approach to learning highlights those kinds of activities where people collaboratively develop new artefacts and products while learning

Hakkarainen, Palonen, Paavola, & Lehtinen, 2004.

slide47

Scenario 4

What learning approaches are used?

The knowledge-creation approach to learning highlights those kinds of activities where people collaboratively develop new artefacts and products while learning

Hakkarainen, Palonen, Paavola, & Lehtinen, 2004.

‘... A kind of individual and collective learning that goes beyond information given and advances knowledge and understanding’

Paavola and Hakkarainen, 2005

slide48

Pause for thought

  • Q Should networked knowledge creation be a mainstream approach to learning in universities?
  • If yes – How can we implement it into mainstream practice?
  • If yes – How can we prepare learners for this form of learning?
  • If no – What are the consequences of not mainstreaming this approach to learning?
slide56

Key challenge: continual learning

How can learners be prepared?

‘... learners (rather than some instructor) are in charge of their learning, by setting their learning goals, by monitoring their learning progress, and by choosing the time and place of learning.

This type of informal learning might be framed as a form of self-regulated learning which requires a specific learning competence.’

Schulz and Robnagel, 2010

slide57

SRL MOOC Study Hypothesis

  • People who exhibit a high degree of Self-Regulation in their
  • learning will use qualitatively different strategies to plan,
  • monitor and reflect on their learning than individuals who
  • exhibit a low degree of Self-Regulation in their learning

Scenario 4

How can learners be prepared?

slide58

Scenario 4

How can learners be prepared?

Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attainingself-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In

Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbookofself-regulation, pp13-39.

Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

slide59

Scenario 4

How can learners be prepared?

Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attainingself-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In

Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbookofself-regulation, pp13-39.

Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

slide60

Scenario 4

How can learners be prepared?

Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attainingself-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In

Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbookofself-regulation, pp13-39.

Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

slide61

Scenario 4

How can learners be prepared?

Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attainingself-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In

Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbookofself-regulation, pp13-39.

Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

slide62

Scenario 4

How can learners be prepared?

Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attainingself-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In

Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbookofself-regulation, pp13-39.

Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

slide63

Scenario 4

How can learners be prepared?

Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attainingself-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In

Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbookofself-regulation, pp13-39.

Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

slide64

Scenario 4

How can learners be prepared?

Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attainingself-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In

Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbookofself-regulation, pp13-39.

Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

slide65

Scenario 4

Question 4

Are we evidencing the changing inter-relationships Seeley Brown predicted?

slide66

Do relationships change?

  • HEFCE Impact study around awareness of UKOER programme and SCORE work
  • Two questionnaires
  • Semi structured interviews (n=10)
  • Lifecourse perspective

COLLECTIVE

KNOWLEDGE

slide67

Scenario 4

Do relationships change?

extended

environment

immediate

environment

people

slide68

Scenario 4

Do relationships change?

  • Openness… is now a part of the world we’re living in(R1)
  • A lot of the things with OERs are about philosophy, it’s about culture, it’s about why are we actually wanting to do this? (R6)
  • Openness now is part of the team culture in learning technology (R7)
  • [I see a] ground swell of change in attitude towards ideas about openness (R4)
slide69

Scenario 4

Do relationships change?

  • amongst academics;
  • between academics and students;
  • between academics and organisations;
  • academics and students with knowledge resources
slide70

Scenario 4

Make do or spend?

  • Why the promise of an economy of scale has not
  • been achieved?
  • Universities tend to journey to familiar destinations,
  • building on what they are already doing. By following
  • familiar paths institutions are bringing about change,
  • though the change tends not to be transformational.
  • HEFCE Impact study Final Report (2013)
slide71

Scenario 4

Make do… or spend resources on….

slide72

Key challenge: continual learning

Make do… or spend resources on….

Unlearning

Transformational change requires everyone involved in the processes to unlearn their current beliefs, values and assumptions

Dede, C. (2007) Transforming Education for the 21st Century:

New Pedagogies that Help All Students Attain Sophisticated Learning Outcomes, NCSU Friday Institute (February 2007)

http://thenetwork.typepad.com/files/dede_21stc-skills_semi-final.pdf

slide73

The learning ecology:

why the promise of an economy of scale has not been achieved

A keynote presentation at the University of Durham, Jan 2013

Allison Littlejohn

Director, Caledonian Academy

Chair of Learning Technology

www.gcu.ac.uk/academy

Collaborators:

Dr Isobel falconer, Dr Anoush Margaryan, Dr Colin Milligan,,

Lou McGill, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK