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Review. Dynamical systems theory explains change in systems that exchange energy with the surrounding environment DST explains how behavior changes through self organization typically no one teaches a child to run… speed is the catalyst. Motor Development.

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Presentation Transcript
review
Review
  • Dynamical systems theory explains change in systems that exchange energy with the surrounding environment
  • DST explains how behavior changes through self organization
    • typically no one teaches a child to run…
    • speed is the catalyst
motor development

Motor Development

Re-conceptualizing Developmental Change in Movement Patterns

life span motor development

Life Span Motor Development

Evolution of a Theory

& Research Program

in the beginning a clinician
In the beginning...a clinician!
  • a knowledge of neurodevelopmental theory
  • a fascination with righting and equilibrium reactions
  • a love for movement analysis
neurodevelopmental theory
Neurodevelopmental Theory
  • development is a process of reflex integration
  • lower level automatic behavior gives way to higher level volitional control

Motor Ctx

Midbrain

Brain stem Level

Spinal Level

neurodevelopmental theory1
Neurodevelopmental Theory
  • Progressive
  • Positive
  • Add Abilities
  • End State Oriented (maturity is the end state)
neurodevelopmental theory2
Neurodevelopmental Theory
  • CNS = Cause of Change
biological theory of aging
Biological Theory of Aging...
  • Regressive
  • Negative
  • Loss of Abilities
  • End state oriented (end state = death)
life span theory
Life Span Theory
  • Development followed by Aging
roberton s component model
Roberton’s Component Model

Developmental Stages of Throwing

Reliability of assigning Stages

Developmental Change within

Components of Body Action

component model of development
Component Model of Development
  • Upper Limbs
  • Axial Region
  • Lower Limbs
three descending control systems
Three descending control systems
  • medial system – controls axial region
  • lateral system – controls proximal limb movements
    • in primate studies the lateral system allowed for differentiated arm movements
  • cortical system – controls distal movements
    • in primate studies allowed individuated finger movments
straying into systems models
Straying into Systems models
  • Not just one big hierarchy
  • Roberton was studying development in those systems!
applying roberton s method
Applying Roberton’s Method
  • Taking it to a new task
  • From Throwing to Righting
righting reactions
Righting Reactions
  • Developed during 1st year of life
    • Rolling to prone
    • Up on hands and knees
    • Into sitting
    • Quadruped to kneeling
    • Kneeling to Half Kneel
    • Up to Stand
righting reactions1
Righting Reactions
  • Movements couple together to assume erect stance
  • Foundation for Physical Independence
righting reactions2
Righting Reactions
  • First Rotational movements then Symmetrical
  • But observations of young adults in PT school revealed all were not using symmetrical form
studies of righting
Studies of Righting
  • Rising to Standing from the Floor
    • Young Adults
why young adults
Why Young Adults?
  • variability in PT students impressive
    • a very few showed symmetrical form when rising
  • Roberton examined variability to get stages of throwing
    • Lifespan perspective
      • hypothesis: variation was “developmental”
sequences
Sequences
  • If person is in a stage he/she shows stable behavior characteristic of that stage
  • If a person is moving from one stage to another
    • shows variable behavior characteristic of those two neighboring stages
studies of righting1
Studies of Righting
  • Rising to Standing from the Floor
    • Young Adults
      • Variability continued to be impressive across 10 trials
      • Described action in each of three components of body action
        • able to identify neighboring stages for each body region
studies of righting2
Studies of Righting
  • Rising to Standing from the Floor
    • Children
      • Age differences confirmed sequences of movement pattern development identified from adult patterns of variation
      • Component Model affirmed
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