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Integrating Technology into Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, ASCD, 2001). By Jan Leonard Two Rivers Professional Development Center, Area III Learning Technology Center. [email protected] References.

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integrating technology into classroom instruction that works marzano pickering pollock ascd 2001

Integrating Technology into ClassroomInstruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, ASCD, 2001)


Jan Leonard

Two Rivers Professional Development Center, Area III Learning Technology Center

[email protected]


Marzano, R., Pickering, D., Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works. ASCD.

Reading Quest of the University of Virginia (

Critical Thinking Skills Project developed by the Georgia Department of Education

Illinois School District #214 – Arlington Heights, IL

Jacobs. H. (2006). Active Literacy Across the Curriculum. Eye on Education.

Stiggins, R., Arter, J., Chappuis, J., Chappuis, S. (2004). Classroom Assessment for Student Learning. Assessment Training Institute.

a first activity
A First Activity

Task #1:

Write the name of a famous person on an index

card. Place your card in a stack with the other

cards of your colleagues.


Task #2:

  • Select the poem, “Backward Bill,” from the choices at
  • Read/listen to the poem.

Task #3:

  • Draw an index card from the stack.
  • Create a graphic organizer to explain how the character in your poem is like and is different from the person on the index cards in terms of the following criteria: looks, actions, character traits – more teacher directed.
  • Use Kidspiration or – Student Materials – Venn Diagrams. Click on the interactive tool.
your learning targets
Your Learning Targets
  • Identify the nine instructional strategies of Dr. Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane Pollock
  • Enhance your use of the nine strategies into the classroom with an emphasis on reading and math.
  • Weave student use of technology into each strategy
  • Identify teacher web resources for the application of each strategy
  • Explain one or more methods to differentiate instruction of the nine strategies.
the nine strategies classroom strategies that work marzano pickering pollock ascd 2001
The Nine Strategies – Classroom Strategies that Work (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, ASCD, 2001)
  • Identifying similarities and differences
  • Summarizing and Note-taking
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
nine strategies continued
Nine Strategies continued
  • Homework and practice
  • Non-linguistic representations
  • Cooperative-working in partners/teams
nine strategies continued1
Nine Strategies continued
  • Setting objectives and providing feedback
  • Creating Hypotheses
  • Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers
research data
Research Data,

Classroom Instruction that Works

technology considerations
Technology Considerations
  • Internet/Research Tools
  • Productivity
  • Communication and Multi-Media
  • Problem-Solving/Decision-Making
  • Graphic Organizers*


Let’s take a look at the matrix.

first strategy identifying similarities and differences
First Strategy: Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Concepts within this strategy:
    • Compare and contrast: genres, authors, poetry, prose, non-fiction, word meanings
    • Analogies
    • Classifying
    • Metaphors
    • Similes
variations of compare contrast
Variations of Compare/Contrast
  • Comparing Lists
    • Shel Silverstein/index card activity – teacher directed: Teacher provides characteristics.
    • First ladies activity – student directed: Students determine characteristics.*

Technology tools: Internet/Research, Graphic Organizers – Inspiration, Kidspiration, Spreadsheets

first ladies activity
First Ladies Activity*
  • Go to www.whitehouse.gove
  • Click on “History and Tours”
  • Click on “Presidents and First Ladies”
  • Select two first ladies and select three criteria for comparison
  • Select your choice of electronically displaying the information.
another variation
Another Variation
  • Beginnings and Endings
    • Give the beginning of the story and the end and ask students to create a timeline of what happened in-between. For example…
Beginning (

“Before the Shot”

Ending (

Tech Tools -

Images: KidPix

Powerpoint (Student materials – timeline)

Text: Word processing

“New Glasses”

three questions
Three questions
  • How could you vary this activity for other content areas for your classroom?
  • How could you make this a more student-directed activity?
  • What other technology tool(s) could you use?
variations continued
Variations (continued)
  • Extrapolation - definition: making inferences or estimations by extending or projecting known information. (
    • Examine a person, place or thing and identify its structure and patterns.
    • Use that structure to find examples of or to identify a similar object or living thing.

Example – Hurricane Katrina


Hurricane Katrina was the most destructive tropical cyclone to hit the United States in historic times. It caused extensive damage to the coastal regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama on the August 29, 2005. By late morning of August 29[2], the storm caused several sections of the levee system in New Orleans, Louisiana to collapse. Subsequent flooding over most of the city, a greater part of which lies below sea level, resulted in widespread damage and many deaths. Later estimates placed the death toll in the thousands, and the damage was expected to surpass Hurricane Andrew as the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. Over a million people were displaced — a humanitarian crisis on a scale unseen in the U.S. since the Great Depression.

As of 7pm September 1, more than 20,000 were still reported missing. Local mortuaries had been told to prepare for "up to 40,000 bodies" [3]. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin stated on August 31 that the death toll of Katrina may be "in the thousands", an estimate also provided through a statement by Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco on September 1. Accurate numbers were not known. Damage was reported in at least 12 states.

Federal disaster declarations blanketed 90,000 square miles (233,000 km²) of the United States, an area almost as large as the United Kingdom. The hurricane left an estimated five million people without power, and it may be up to two months before all power is restored. On September 3, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff described the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as "probably the worst catastrophe, or set of catastrophes" in the country's history, referring to the hurricane itself plus the flooding of New Orleans.

your task
Your Task
  • Read the article about Hurricane Katrina on the previous slide.
  • Go to the website,, and read more about it and other natural disasters.
  • Identify the structure of Hurricane Katrina in terms of its formation, path, timeline, destruction in short phrases.
  • From the structure phrases, identify another example that have a similar structure, such as a tornado, or a tsunami. Compare the two in a Venn Diagram.
your task continued
Your Task continued
  • Complete a Venn Diagram ( comparing the structure of Hurricane Katrina to the structure of something else you identified.
three questions1
Three Questions
  • How could you vary this activity for other content areas for your classroom?
  • How could you make this type of activity a student directed activity?
  • What other technologies could you use?
    • Let’s try Photostory!
variations continued1
Variations (continued)
  • Memory Line - definition: Comparison reviewing one set of learned information with new information with the goal of answering a question.
    • Example: Illinois and another state
    • Criteria – Geography, history, population, agriculture, industry, tourism
    • Research information –
the question in which state would i rather live
The Question: In which state would I rather live?




Population :


Special Places to see:






Special Places to see:

graphic organizer for this activity
Graphic Organizer for this activity

Table showing differences, similarities and an answer to the question, Venn Diagram, Inspiration web, spreadsheet, word processing – Microsoft, Google Tools

three questions2
Three Questions
  • How could you vary this activity for other content areas for your classroom?
  • How could you make this a more student directed activity?
  • What other technologies could you use?
two classifying activities
Two Classifying Activities

Teacher Directed –

Student Directed -

interactive graphic organizer websites
Interactive Graphic Organizer Websites
analogies websites
Analogies – Websites
teacher web resources
Teacher Web Resources
more teacher web resources
More Teacher Web Resources
even more resources
Even More Resources
next strategy
Next Strategy
  • Reinforcing effort and Providing Recognition
    • Think back about a time when you were in school and you were successful.
    • To what did you attribute your success?
      • Other people
      • Effort
      • Ability
      • Luck
major points
Major Points
  • There is a tie between effort and achievement. – are students really aware?
  • Students need to be taught about effort and the tie to achievement - stories. Who is a person that made great achievements because of an emphasis on effort?
  • Create an effort rubric and an achievement rubric.
effort rubric checklist
Effort Rubric/Checklist
  • Ask students what goes into effort? – verbally or on paper.
  • Organize student comments into a checklist.
  • Give students “their” checklist and ask them to self assess their effort on a given assignment or task.
  • Compare completed checklists with achievement results on the given task.
  • Can create a rubric from the checklist.
websites for rubrics technology projects
Websites for Rubrics-Technology Projects
  • Extrinsic versus intrinsic rewards
  • Tied to a standard
  • Tangible versus intangible (abstract)
next strategy homework and practice
Next Strategy: Homework and Practice
  • Major points
    • Have a homework policy and post it in the room.
    • Practice to make 80% accuracy includes 24 repetitions.
    • Give a target for the homework.
    • Have students include the reasoning process during practice for the skill. (ISAT link – extended response)
major points continued
Major Points continued
  • Chart accuracy with self assessment.
  • Focus on a skill within a skill if necessary (e.g., summarizing – underlining the key ideas)
  • Use variations of a skill to master it – e.g., give the answer and ask students for questions/problems that have that answer – technology consideration – jeopardy powerpoint.
  • Completed homework needs feedback.
activities for homework and practice
Activities for Homework and Practice
  • Homework self assessment graphic
    • Graph
      • Technology link – use of Microsoft Excel, Google spread-sheeting, or AppleWorks
    • Table – see example
  • Important – Students keep a record of their progress.
use of i can statements
Use of “I can statements”
next strategy1
Next Strategy

Summarizing Rules (According to Classroom Instruction

that Works)

  • Delete trivial material that is unnecessary for understanding
  • Delete redundant material
  • Substitute categorical information for detailed information (trees for maple, oak, pine)
  • Create or select a topic sentence
summarizing frames
Summarizing Frames
  • Narrative Frame
  • Top-Restriction Frame
  • Definition Frame
  • Argumentation Frame
  • Problem/Solution Frame
  • Conversation Frame

Classroom Instruction that Works

the questions to ask
The Questions to Ask…

What do I want my students to know and be able to do when summarizing this material?

Which frame should I have my students use?

How should my students display their information?

  • Process
    • Record your summary into the computer.
    • Convert it to an appropriate audio file.
    • Upload it to the Web
    • That’s it!

An example – Willow Web – let’s take a look first.

what you ll need
What You’ll Need
  • Computer
  • Microphone/Headset
  • Internet Connection
  • Software – we’ll use Audacity (www. – it’s free.
  • Lame MP3 Encoder – same website, also free.
  • Website to upload file*
additional summarizing activities
Additional Summarizing Activities
  • Selective underlining of key ideas and summary
    • Step one – underline key ideas based on one of the summary frames’ questions.
    • Turn over the book/sheet and take the answers to the frame questions and write a summary paragraph. They should only look back at their underlining when they become stumped.
    • Go back and forth until they feel like they have captured the important ideas.
    • Technology Tool – Word processing, Podcasting
summarizing strategies continued
Summarizing Strategies continued
  • Newspaper Mantra using the Narrative Frame
    • Identify only who what, when, where, why, and how
    • Technology tools – Word processing, spreadsheeting, Inspiration, Kidspiration, news report in audio or video format – IMovie or Windows MovieMaker, Podcasts
    • Using the Narrative Frame for summarizing video as well – “Ideas Worth Spreading.” (Google video)
summarizing activities continued
Summarizing Activities continued
  • Successive shorter summaries
    • Start with a half page
    • Try to reduce to two paragraphs
    • Reduce to one paragraph
    • Reduce to two-three sentences
    • Reduce to one sentence
    • Technology tool: Word Processing program
summarizing strategies continued1
Summarizing Strategies continued
  • Headless stories/articles
    • Take articles from the newspaper, etc… and cut off the headlines. Ask students to write the headlines. Or…only give the headline and ask for the story.
    • Match headlines to the articles
    • Technology tool – Internet:;
summarizing strategies continued2
Summarizing Strategies continued
  • Sum it Up
    • Ask students to imagine that they are sending a telegram. Every word costs ten cents. They only have so much money. For example they only have $3.00. They have to give a summary of an event or text that is 30 words or less. This could be set up as a center or learning station for when work is completed.
  • Technology tools – Word Processing, Internet blogging, Podcasting
  • Blog – a journal, summary, opinion, an aggregate of articles
  • – a Google tool
summarizing sophistication
Summarizing Sophistication…
  • Let’s add RSS feeds to the mix.
    • Sign up for a Google account
    • Google Reader (
    • Summarize a variety of articles into one article. Select your frame first.
next strategy cooperative learning
Next Strategy: Cooperative Learning
  • Major points (Classroom Instruction that Works)
    • Keep groups small
    • Ability grouping – used only sparingly
  • Differentiation – major points
    • Use of flexible grouping
        • Size: individual, pair, small groups
        • Technique: interest, learning profile, readiness (subject knowledge, achievement), random, student choice
cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning
  • An activity about inventors….
inventions inventors

2. Go to

3. Select your interest category and read through the inventions.

4. Your task is to answer three questions.

inventions inventors categorically speaking
Inventions/Inventors – Categorically speaking
  • Go to:’ll create an interest graph together.
  • Rank your interest from 1=highest to 6=lowest on the following topics:
      • Clothes ___
      • Communication (telephones, Internet) ___
      • Food ___
      • Science (light bulb, telescope) ___
      • Transportation (airplanes, cars) ___
      • Fun __
inventions inventors essential questions
Inventions/Inventors – Essential Questions
  • Within your category, what makes an invention important?
  • Which three inventions were the most important and why?
  • Within your category, what invention could be next?

You are to answer the questions with a powerpoint slide show, podcast or graphic organizer of your choice – see websites on the following slide:

online graphic organizers
Online Graphic Organizers
  • (Click on student materials, scroll to the webbing tool or the Venn Diagram)
software to create a graphic organizer
Software to create a graphic organizer:
  • Create a table in a word processing program
  • Create a spreadsheet – Excel or Google Tools
  • Use of Inspiration/Kidspiration
flexible grouping
Flexible Grouping
  • Pairs
  • Small Groups
  • Whole Group
  • Individual
next strategy nonlinguistic representations
Next Strategy – Nonlinguistic Representations

“Pictures start dwindling as students get older, but many students still need images to help understanding.”

A first activity – Drawing game – Women versus men for this one. (Use of Paint program – projected on the wall.)

use of visual frameworks
Use of Visual Frameworks
  • Examples
    • Concept Maps
    • Mind Maps
    • Sequence Maps
  • Activities
    • Concept map – Comprehension of a concept
    • Mind Map – college or Thanksgiving
    • Sequence Map – Inventions activity – in conjunction with strategy of cooperative learning
using digital images
Using Digital Images

Combining the use of a nonlinguistic image with another strategy – summarizing (variation- making predictions) Activity #1: Sequence this event in images, then in text.,, or

using more of the internet
Using More of the Internet… - Intel’s Education program – Visual Tools

  • Visual Ranking
  • Seeing Reason
  • Showing Evidence
non linguistic representations in summary classroom instruction that works
Non-linguistic Representations – in Summary (Classroom Instruction that Works)
  • Use a variety of organizers to construct mental images of the knowledge being learned – refer to graphic organizers websites.
  • Use images to assist with comprehension – main ideas, details, inferences, analogies, metaphors.
  • Teaching with Visual Frameworks by Christine Ewy – ISBN # 0-7619-4665-9
  • Flexible Grouping in Reading by Michael Opitz – ISBN # 0-590-96390-2
Next Strategy: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

Major points for setting objectives (Classroom Instruction that works)

  • Make the objectives “not too specific.” (not like DLOs of the 1970s)
  • Students should be able to personalize goals.
  • Be inclusive in the goals of all outcomes intended.
  • Activity – Creating “I can statements” with the following standard/objective:
    • Classify plants and animals into their respectful groups
    • Compare and contrast United States presidents
    • Classify different types of literature – fable, fairy tale, etc…
part two providing feedback
Part Two: Providing Feedback

Major Points (Classroom Instruction that Works)

  • Advanced - Show students examples of good work
  • Feedback should be corrective – giving explanations.
  • Feedback should be timely – more delay, less achievement.
  • Feedback should be criterion-referenced, not norm-referenced.
  • Students can provide some of their own feedback.
feedback options
Feedback Options
  • Rubrics (
  • Checklists
  • Contracts
  • Peer feedback
  • Student led conferences
  • Student progress monitoring – graphs, charts, etc..
next strategy generating and testing hypothesis
Next Strategy: Generating and Testing Hypothesis

Major points (Classroom Instruction that Works)

  • Ensure that students use both inductive and deductive reasoning
  • Provide a variety of structured tasks
    • Problem solving
    • Historical Investigation and Prediction (What would have happened if no atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima?)
    • Invention
    • Experimental Inquiry – most commonly used with scientific method
    • Decision-making – our inventions activity from last time.
    • Require explanations – for younger students have sentence stems, also have templates.
an activity using the invention strategy
An activity Using the Invention Strategy

Overweight among American children has become a national health crisis. In the 20

Years between 1980 and 2000, the number of children and adolescents who were

Overweight or at risk of overweight more than doubled. From U.S. government data

available in 2000, it was estimated that approximately 30% of children were at risk of

overweight and more than 15% were overweight. More recent reports suggest these

numbers may actually be even higher, and there is every indication they will continue to

climb. Excess body weight places children at increased risk of developing a number of

Serious and chronic medical conditions. These include type 2 diabetes, hypertension

(high blood pressure), dyslipidemia (high cholesterol), heart disease, and adult obesity.

Although in the past many of these health problems were generally limited to older

people, they are now being seen in younger adults as well as in school age children.

Because of the staggering personal costs of overweight to our children’s physical and

mental health, both today and in their futures, and its costs to our healthcare system

and our society, widespread efforts are underway throughout the country to improve the

health of America’s youth.

more information
More information…

"This epidemic increase in childhood overweight is particularly prevalent among African American and Hispanic children, with more than 21% of these groups meeting the classification of overweight. It is estimated that about half of overweight school-agers and 70% of overweight teens will remain obese into adulthood." "While the CDC and other organizations recommend that children participate in physical activity a minimum of an hour daily, kids are actually engaging in less physical activity, particularly as they approach adolescence." "More than 75% of children ages 6-11 do not eat the minimum of 3 servings of vegetables or 2 servings of fruit daily."

still more
Still more….
  • The new statistics show that nearly 4 million children ages 6–11 and 5.3 million adolescents ages 12–19 were overweight or obese in 2002. In addition, more children are overweight or obese at very young ages. More than 10 percent of preschool children between the ages of two and five were overweight in 2002 – up from 7 percent in 1994.

steps for using the invention strategy
Steps for Using the Invention Strategy
  • Describe the situation needed for improvement.
  • Identify specific standards for the invention or solution.
  • Brainstorm ideas and hypothesize whether or not you think they will work. Use an electronic graphic organizer for your work.
  • For one that might work, develop the invention electronically.
  • Develop to the point of being able to test.
  • Revise until it reaches the standards you have set.
next strategy cues questions and advanced organizers
Next Strategy: Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers

Major Points:

  • Use a variety of Bloom’s Taxonomy levels in questioning.
  • Focus on key ideas, the essential, the endearing understandings. Use essential questions.
  • Use graphic organizers in the form of advanced organizers. – give headings, they complete details, for example. Or…they receive the organizer complete before the lesson.
  • Students should be posing the questions and dialoging with each other. (Jacobs, 2007)
additional questioning strategies
Additional Questioning Strategies
  • QAR
  • Socratic
  • Question Starters – Students should be asking questions and having the discussion amongst themselves.
  • Develop one question from each level of Bloom’s Taxonomy for the following digital image:
technology considerations1
Technology Considerations
  • Digital Cameras
  • Internet
  • Digital Movies
  • Paint Program – creation of their own pictures
additional questioning resources
Additional Questioning Resources
  • Websites
  • Books
    • Active Questioning, by Nancy Johnson Farris
    • Active Literacy across the Curriculum, by Heidi Hayes Jacobs
advanced organizers
Advanced Organizers
  • Major Points (Classroom Instruction that Works)
    • Focus – what is important
    • Focus – higher level thinking
    • Focus – Most useful with information not well-organized.
we re at the end
We’re at the end…
  • Considerations and Questions:
    • Incorporation of the “Nine” into your classroom practices
    • Spiraling the “Nine”
    • Integrating technology
    • Moving towards more student directed activities
thanks for coming
Thanks for coming!
  • Have a great rest of your summer!!!