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Why by-plant resolutions will be necessary in precision agriculture. 1992, At What Resolution are there real biological differences. Target plant acquired over 70% of the total depleted 15N fertilizer that was taken up

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paul hodgen univ nebraska dissertation aa13271926 jan 1 2007

Target plant acquired over 70% of the total depleted 15N fertilizer that was taken up

data revealed an individual corn plant acquires most of its N from within a radius of less than 0.5 m.

Timely emergence impacts a plant's potential to achieve maximum yield.

Plants lose yield potential by emerging as little as three days after their neighbors.

Large doses of N fertilizer could not increase the yield of late emerging corn plants.

Small spatial resolution N management techniques should be focused on determining the N demand of the early emerging plants.

Paul Hodgen, Univ. Nebraska, Dissertation AA13271926, Jan 1, 2007
slide4

Plant-to-plant variation, avg. 45 bu/acNebraska, Iowa, Virginia, Oklahoma,

Argentina, Mexico, Ohio

OKLAHOMA

IOWA

variable rate technology treat temporal and spatial variability wheat 0 4m 2 corn by plant
Variable Rate TechnologyTreat Temporal and Spatial Variability Wheat, 0.4m2 Corn, by plant
slide6
Causes for Delayed and uneven emergence
  • •variable depth of planting
  • •double seed drops
  • •wheel compaction
  • •seed geometry within the furrow
  • •surface crusting
  • •random soil clods
  • •soil texture differences
  • •variable distance between seeds
  • •variable soil compaction around the seed
  • •insect damage
  • •moisture availability
  • •variable surface residue
  • •variable seed furrow closure
  • •volunteerearly season root pruning (disease, insect)
  • The impact of uneven stands takes place prior to the time that irrigation is employed whether using surface/furrow or center pivot systems.
slide7

34 ± 5.3 bu/ac

37 ± 9 bu/ac

methods
Methods
  • A GreenSeeker Sensor was mounted on a bicycle
  • A shaft encoder was used to assign distance to each sensor reading
  • Readings were taken once per centimeter
summary

No magic/transparent algorithm, methods

Embedded technology

Farmer fields in the USA, Argentina, and Mexico showed that over all sites, plant-to-plant variation in corn grain yield averaged 2765 kg ha-1 or 44.1 bu ac-1 (Martin et al., 2005).

Hodgen et al. (2007) showed that if corn plants are delayed by as little as four days, the yield depression of that individual delayed plant was as much as 15 percent

Summary
norman ne 1995 2008 avg range 61 bu ac
Norman, NE, 1995-2008Avg. Range = 61 bu/ac

2010, 1.54 billion bushels, Nebraska

2009, 159 bu/ac

slide14

NDVI, V8 to V10

=

CORN

INSEY

Days from planting to sensing

causes for delayed and uneven emergence

•variable depth of planting

•double seed drops

•wheel compaction

•seed geometry within the furrow

•surface crusting

•random soil clods

•soil texture differences

•variable distance between seeds

•variable soil compaction around the seed

•insect damage

•moisture availability

•variable surface residue

•variable seed furrow closure

•volunteer

early season root pruning (disease, insect)

Causes for Delayed and uneven emergence
by plant fertilizer applicator

Fertilizing individual plants will require:

    • Sensing capability to locate plants, the proximity of neighboring plants, and yield potential of all plants
    • Calculating the desired fertilizer rate
    • Applying the desired amount of fertilizer within some (to be determined) constrained distance from the plant.
By-Plant Fertilizer Applicator
slide18

Seed Placement and Leaf Orientation

Yield increase up to 27.1% and 30.6% (prostrate and erect hybrids respectively at pop 74,100 plants/ha) when compared to random placement

previous work
Previous Work
  • OSU developed and demonstrated a pressure based binary control system to apply nitrogen fertilizer at a sub meter scale.
  • 1x, 2x, and 4x nozzles are opened quickly in combinations to provide 7 distinct rates.
drop nozzles in corn
Drop Nozzles in Corn
  • The pressure based binary system was used in corn by dropping nozzles into the canopy.
  • TeeJet SJ-3 fertilizer nozzles were oriented parallel with the row at a 45 degree angle.
moving to individual plants
Moving to Individual Plants
  • This same concept can be used when fertilizing individual plants.
  • Since the system will maintain a near constant pressure, rate will be based on speed, orifice size, and pulse
slide22

Comprehensive work from transects sampled all over the world have shown that the average difference in corn grain yield when determined by plant, averaged 44 bu/ac.   This included corn hybrid data from farmer fields in Nebraska, Ohio, Virginia, Iowa, Mexico, and Argentina (http://nue.okstate.edu/Index_Publications/Plant_toPlant.htm).  This exact same result was encountered in high and low yielding environments.  Because plant to plant differences in yield are common and incredibly large, there is significant room for improving nutrient management, especially since N demands by plant are equally as variable.   Because variable plant to plant N demands can be managed on-the-go using GreenSeeker sensing technology and advanced spraying systems, research programs like that at Oklahoma State University must deliver improved N management practices.  This has become more important when considering that nitrogen use efficiencies are so low, all over the world.

current approach of determine sensor based in season n fertilization

Predicting Mid-Season Yield Potential (YP0) 

Predicting the Potential Response to Applied N

Yield Potential Achievable with Added N Fertilization (YPN)

Generating a Fertilizer N Rate Recommendation

Current approach of determine sensor-based in-season N fertilization
understanding the algorithm

Why they work

Why they have weaknesses in certain regions

Why is the algorithm based on yield potential

Why predicting yield potential is going to be critical for N and other elements

Understanding the Algorithm
slide28

Spectral Data Based on Reflectance

Leaf Pigments

Cell Structure

Water Content

Water Absorption

Healthy

Lignin and Tannins

Water Absorption

Damaged

Cellulose Peak

970

Short Wave Infrared

(1000-2500 nm)

Visible Spectrum

(400-700 nm)

Near Infrared

(700-1000 nm)

Source: www.forestwatch.sr.unh.edu

why by plant resolutions will be necessary in precision agriculture1

Fundamental principles

Expression of Variability

By-Plant Variability

Errors Associated with By-Plant Yield

Corn Grain Yields Averaged over Larger Scales

Errors in Corn Grain Yields from Larger Scales

Why by-plant resolutions will be necessary in precision agriculture
causes for the large differences in by plant corn grain yields

Causes for Delayed and uneven emergence

variable depth of planting

double seed drops

wheel compaction

seed geometry within the furrow

surface crusting

random soil clods

soil texture differences

variable distance between seeds

variable soil compaction around the seed

insect damage

moisture availability

variable surface residue

variable seed furrow closure

volunteerearly season root pruning (disease, insect)

The impact of uneven stands takes place prior to the time that irrigation is employed whether using surface/furrow or center pivot systems.

Causes for the Large Differences in By-Plant Corn Grain Yields
slide37

Of the 159,531,007 hectares of maize in 2009, there were approximately 34,409,010 hectares in the developing world. Of that total, around 60% was planted by hand, representing just over 20,645,000 hectares or 13% of the total maize area in the world (www.faostat.org. Web 24 Sept. 2010).

slide38

If single seeds could be planted 14-17 cm apart, much like conventional planters accomplish in the developed world, production levels could easily increase 25%.

Despite the fact that third world maize yields are generally less than 2.0 Mg/ha (Dowswell et al., 1996), this 25% yield increase on 60% of the hand planted maize area in the third world would be worth more than 3 billion dollars/year (corn price at $0.3/kg)

20,000,000 has * 2.0 Mg/ha *0.25 (% increase) *0.3

ramp calibration strip
Ramp Calibration Strip
  • Walk it off
  • Or use Hand-Held Sensor

0 N

195 N

slide43

VARI-TARGET variable rate nozzle bodies, most widely used metering orifice used with GreenSeeker

slide45

Argentina

Australia

Canada

ChinaEcuador

IndiaItaly Mexico

Turkey

Uzbekistan

Zimbabwe

1992-present67 Graduate Students + Faculty1 week to 4 month study abroad

slide46

Ciudad Obregon, Mexico

Modipuram, India

slide48

Because yield and N responsiveness were consistently found to be independent of one another, and since both influence the demand for fertilizer N, estimates of both should be combined to calculate realistic in-season N rates. 

slide49

Strategy: Have to have experience seeing the different responses from one year to the next

  • Year OSU Dealer/Producer
  • 2005 80 >400
  • 2006 586 Ramps
  • 2007 512 Ramps > 2000
  • 2008 15
  • 2009 20 3500
  • 2010 20 3800
  • 2011 60 4000 (includes canola)
people
People

ArgentinaChina (2) El Salvador (2)Ethiopia (3)India (2)IndonesiaIraqKenyaKoreaMexico (2)Philippines Russia (2)Uzbekistan

  • Asst., Assoc, Full Professors
    • Brenda Tubana, Louisiana State University
    • Robert Mullen, Ohio State University
    • Wade Thomason, Virginia Tech
    • Olga Walsh, Montana State University
    • Kent Martin, Kansas State University
    • Byungkyun Chung, McNeese State University
    • Brian Arnall, Oklahoma State University
    • Kefyalew Desta, Oklahoma State University
    • Steve Phillips, IPNI
    • Fred Kanampiu, CIMMYT
    • Shannon Osborne, USDA-ARS
    • Edgar Ascencio, CARE- El Salvador
    • Erna Lukina, Lab Director, AZ
    • HasilSembiring, NARS Indonesia
    • Francisco Gavi-Reyes, Chapingo, MX
    • Kyle Freeman, Mosaic
    • Paul Hodgen, Monsanto
    • Jagadeesh Mosali, Noble Foundation
    • ShambelMoges, Accurate Labs
  • NRCS, Monsanto, KSU, UNL, John Deere, Servi-Tech, Noble Foundation, SST, SCS
osu approach
OSU Approach

YP0

YPN

YPN

YPMAX

RI=1.5

RI=2.0

Grain yield

RI-NFOAYPN=YP0 * RI

INSEY (NDVI/days from planting to sensing)

Nf = (YP0*RI) – YP0))/Ef

  • Mechanics of how N rates are computed
  • Yield potential is predicted without N
  • The yield achievable with added N is #1 times the RI
  • Grain N uptake for #2 minus #1 = Predicted Additional N Need
  • Fertilizer Rate = #3/ efficiency factor (usually 0.5 to 0.7)
outline

Foliar P

Seed Orientation

N Rich Strip

Algorithm Development (YP0-RI), SBNRC

Pocket Sensor

Hand Planter, 3rd world

Regional Corn, Regional Wheat

New by plant approach

Outline