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Chapter 5: Motivation

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Chapter 5: Motivation. Introduction. Fierce competition across industries and a wide basket of choices and offerings from companies makes motivating employees vital to any business Focus on a variety of key motivating plans ranging from monetary incentives to rewards and recognition.

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Fierce competition across industries and a wide basket of choices and offerings from companies makes motivating employees vital to any business

Focus on a variety of key motivating plans ranging from monetary incentives to rewards and recognition

frederick herzberg kita
Frederick Herzberg: KITA
  • Negative Physical KITA
  • Negative Psychological KITA
  • Positive KITA

Either positive nor negative KITA instills motivation – it only results in short-term movement

frederick herzberg two factor theory
Frederick Herzberg: Two-factor Theory

Hygiene factors (extrinsic to the job):

  • Company policy and administration
  • Supervision
  • Interpersonal relationships
  • Salary
  • Status
  • Security

Motivator factors (intrinsic to the job):

  • Achievement
  • Recognition for achievement
  • The work
  • Responsibility
  • Growth or advancement
the job characteristics model
The Job Characteristics Model

Five core job characteristics:

  • Skill variety
  • Task identity
  • Task significance
  • Autonomy
  • Feedback

Followed by three critical psychological states:

  • Experienced meaningfulness
  • Experienced responsibility
  • Knowledge of results

Results in:

  • Increased work satisfaction
  • Performance
  • Reduced absence
  • Employee turnover
the job characteristics model1
The Job Characteristics Model

In general, leaders must initiate and develop their social capital by focusing on three aspects:

  • The structural dimension: the overall patterns of relationships in the organization
  • The relational dimension: the nature of connections between individuals in the organization
  • The cognitive dimension: the extent to which employees within a social network share a common perspective or understanding

High social capital directs high internal motivation leading to high performance and making employees more successful in achieving goals

mcgregor s theory x y
McGregor’s Theory X & Y

Theory X:

  • Management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work.
  • Management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed
  • A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level
  • Employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can

Theory Y:

  • Management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control.
  • Managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.
  • Given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work.
  • The satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation.
mcgregor s theory x y1
McGregor’s Theory X & Y

Theory Y is a process of:

  • Creating opportunities
  • Releasing potential
  • Removing obstacles
  • Encouraging growth
  • Providing guidance
  • “Management by objectives” and not “Management by control”

The application of Theory Y can be slow, and progress in typically done in small steps including:

  • Decentralization and Delegation
  • Job Enlargement
  • Participation and Consultative Management
  • Performance Appraisal
exercise and practice routines
Exercise and Practice Routines
  • Form groups of 4- 6 people
  • Each person writes down three things that motivates them in their job and three things that would motivate them even more
  • Present your answers to each other
  • Agree on one factor that would motivate you all even more
  • Class discussion on the groups’ motivation factors
bibliography and reference materials
Bibliography and Reference Materials

Garg, P. & Renu, R. (2006). New model of job design: motivating employees' performance. Journal of Management Development. Vol. 25 (6), pp. 572-587.

Hertzberg, Frederick. (1968). One More Time: How Do YouMotivateEmployees? Harvard Business Review. Vol 46, pp. 53-62.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. PsychologicalReview. Vol. 50 (4), pp. 370-396.

McGregor, Douglas M. (1957). The Human Side of Enterprise. Management Review. November 1957, pp. 41-49.