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Unit 3 Knowing Yourself. Unit 3 : Text A. 1. Teaching Aims and Requirements 2. Teaching Focus 3. Background Information 4. Text organization 5. Abstract of the Text 6. Text A study 7. Summary of Text A. 1. Teaching Aims and Requirements. A. Grasp the main idea and structure of the text.

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unit 3 text a
Unit 3 : Text A

1. Teaching Aims and Requirements

2. Teaching Focus

3. Background Information

4. Text organization

5. Abstract of the Text

6. Text A study

7. Summary of Text A

1 teaching aims and requirements
1. Teaching Aims and Requirements
  • A. Grasp the main idea and structure of the text.
  • B. Master the key language points and grammatical structure in the text.
  • C. Conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme if the unit.
2 teaching focus
2. Teaching Focus
  • 1) How to describe personality?
  • The words that might be useful.
  • Optimistic, enthusiastically, isolate, sensitive, mature, normal, selfish, critical, judgmental…
  • 2) Grammar focus
  • Attributive Clauses
  • That 从句, which 从句
  • The combination of Characteristics that makes you different from every other person is your personality.
  • He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.
3 background information
3. Background Information

1) The Johari Window, named after the first names of its inventors, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. A four-paned “window”, as illustrated above, divides personal awareness into four different types, as represented by its four quadrants (象限): Arena, Façade, Blind Spot and Unknown.

slide6
2) Freud, Sigmund (1856~1939)
  • Born on May 6, 1856, in Moravia, which is now in Czechoslovakia.
  • When he was about three years old, the family moved to Vienna.
  • A top student in school.
  • From 1859 to 1938, working as a doctor in Vienna.
  • Around 1895, Freud decided to study and treat mental disorders, developing the theory of “psychoanalysis”.
  • In March 1938, Freud, as a Jew, came to London to flee from the Nazis after the German annexation (合并) of Austria.
  • Died in 1939 in London.
  • His representative works include:
slide7
The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
  • Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria (1905)
  • Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1921)
  • The Future of an Illusion (1927)
  • Moses and Monotheism (1939)
slide8
3) Directions: Here are a group of words describing personal characteristics. Choose six personal characteristics out of those listed which best describe the kind of person you think you are. Discuss with your group members and ask for suggestions. Then choose six personal characteristics you would most like to see in your ideal marriage partner. Compare your choices with your group members’ and discuss the differences. Make your group decision and tell the class.

truthful

Amusing

tidy

patient

talkative

independent

intellectual

decisive

faithful

considerate

generous

broad-minded

ambitious

slide9

4) Directions: Do you want to know what kind of person you are? Please go over the following statements. You can either agree or disagree with each of them.

1]. As a rule, current preoccupations worry you more than your

future plans.

2]. You find it difficult to talk about your feelings.

3]. You feel at ease in a crowd.

4]. You do your best to complete a task on time.

5]. You are strongly touched by the stories about people’s troubles.

6]. You are more interested in a general idea than in the details of its realization.

7]. Strict observance of the established rules is likely to prevent a good outcome.

8]. Often you prefer to read a book than go to a party.

9]. You tend to rely on your experience rather than on theoretical alternatives.

slide10
10]. It’s difficult to get you excited.

11]. You rapidly get involved in social life at a new workplace.

12]. It is in your nature to assume responsibility.

13]. You frequently and easily express your feelings and emotions.

14]. You often think about humankind and its destiny.

15]. You believe the best decision is one that can be easily changed.

16]. You are a person somewhat reserved and distant in

communication.

17]. You prefer to act immediately rather than speculate about

various options.

18]. You trust reason rather than feelings.

19]. You spend your leisure time actively socializing with a group of

people, attending parties, shopping, etc.

slide11
20]. You usually plan your actions in advance.
  • 21]. Your actions are frequently influenced by emotions.
  • 22]. You often contemplate about the complexity of life.
  • 23]. You often do jobs in a hurry.
  • 24]. You find it difficult to speak loudly.

Up to now, actually you have just finished one third of the complete version of the Jung-Myers-Briggs Typology (类型学) Test. To finish it and know the analysis of your personality, you can refer to http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/Jtypes1.htm. If you are interested in other personality tests, you can log onto the following web page:

http://www.personalitypathways.com/type_inventory.html

Myers-Briggs Indicator Test

slide12

5). Directions: Text A has twelve paragraphs (1-12). Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph from the list below.

  • A) Intellectual traits of personality
  • B) Environment influence on personality
  • C) Emotional traits of personality
  • D) What is personality
  • E) Three elements of personality
  • F) Two influences on personality
  • G) A good time for personality adjustment — adolescence
  • H) Personality can be adjusted
  • I) Behavior reveals personality
  • J) Social traits of personality
  • K) Personalities are not simple
  • L) Heredity influences personality

1-D; 2-K; 3-E; 4-C; 5-J; 6-A; 7-I; 8-F; 9-L; 10-B; 11-H; 12-G

4 text organization par 12
4. Text Organization: Par 12

Part 1: para 1

Part 2: para 2- para 7

Part 3: para 8- para 10

Part 4: para 11- para 12

After reading each part, we’ll sum up the main idea.

5 abstract of the text
5. Abstract of the Text
  • Different person have different personalities which are generally composed by three elements: emotional, social, and intellectual.
  • The personality of one person can be shaped mainly by two influences: heredity and environment.
text a personality development
Text A: Personality Development

People come in all shapes and sizes. They also come with distinctive personalities. The combination of characteristics that makes you different from every other person is your personality.

How do you understand “in all shapes and sizes”?

(= It means people have various looks and figures.)

Translate the two sentences into Chinese.

(= 人有高矮胖瘦,个性也各不相同。)

slide17
combination:n. the act of combining or state of being combined
  • * The firm is working on a new product in combination with several overseas partners.
  • Collocation:
  • a fixed combination 固定搭配
  • in combination (with) 联合,与……合作
  • NB: 注意该词的词性变化。它的动词形式为combine。
slide18
2. characteristic:
  • 1) n. a special and easily recognized quality of someone or something
  • * Arrogance is one of his less attractive characteristics.
  • 2) adj. typical; representing a person’s or thing’s usual character
  • * He spoke with characteristic enthusiasm.
  • * characteristic generosity
  • (= 特有的慷慨行为)
slide19
CF: character, characteristic & feature
  • 这三个词作为名词都有“性格”、“品质”、“特征”之意。
  • character指成年人已经充分发展的生活方式,而且往往和品格有关。例如:
  • 你一眼就可以看出一个人的性格。
  • * You can read a guy’s character at the first glance.
  • characteristic指某物的任何方面,不涉及全局的重要性,常指有代表性的一个侧面。常用于科技领域。例如:
  • 长寿是一种可遗传的特性。
  • * Longevity is an inheritable characteristic.
  • feature通常指外貌的特征,娱乐广告中指特别的或附加的有吸引力的东西。例如:
  • * An aquiline (鹰的) nose was her best feature. 鹰钩鼻是她最明显的特征。
slide20
One’s personality can be summed up in a word. People might say that Harry is shy; Tasha is aggressive; and Shannon is outgoing. Actually, personalities are more complex than this. A closer look at personalities will show you why they are not so simple, and you will also discover that your personality can be shaped if you make the effort.
slide21
3. sum up:
  • give a statement of the main points (of a report, a speech, a trial, etc.)
  • 教授以扼要的重述结束了报告。
  • (= The professor concluded the lecture by summing up.)
slide22
A person’s personality is composed of many elements. These elements, in general, fall into three categories — emotional, social, and intellectual.
slide23
4. compose: v.
  • 1) write something, especially a piece of music or poetry
  • * He plays the piano beautifully, and he composes his own music.
  • 2) make (oneself) calm or tranquil
  • * Compose yourself and deal with the problems logically.
  • (= 冷静下来,并且理性地处理问题。)
  • 3) make up (something); form (something)
  • * Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.
  • * The committee was composed mainly of teachers and parents.
slide24
CF: compose, comprise, constitute & consist
  • compose的主语表示事物的组成部分,宾语表示事物的整体。但在被动语态中正好相反。例如:
  • * England, Scotland, and Wales compose the island of Great Britain. 英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士组成大不列颠岛。
  • comprise可以表示“包含”、“由……组成”之意,此时主语表示事物的整体,宾语表示事物的组成部分;也可以表示“构成”之意,此时主语表示事物的组成部分,宾语表示事物的整体。例如:
  • * The committee comprises ten persons. 委员会由十人组成。
  • constitute的主语表示事物的组成部分,宾语表示事物的整体。例如:
  • * Seven days constitute a week. 七天为一个星期。
  • consist是个不及物动词,与介词of一起连用,不可用于被动语态。consist的主语表示事物的整体,of后的宾语表示事物的组成部分。例如:
  • * Our dinner consists of three courses only. 我们的晚餐只有三道菜。
slide25
5. emotional: adj.
  • 1) of or relating to emotion
  • * The child’s bad behavior is a result of emotional problems.
  • 2) having feelings which are strong or easily made active
  • * He was very emotional; he cried when I left.
  • NB: 该词的名词形式为emotion。
  • Collocation:
  • stir/whip up emotion(s) 激发起感情
  • express emotion 表达情感
  • show emotion 显露出情感
  • suppress/contain one’s emotions 抑制感情
slide26

What does “this part of their personality” refer to?

(= It refers to the emotional traits of personality.)

Paraphrase the sentence.

(= When you see how people respond to their emotions, you begin to learn something of the emotional aspect of their personality.)

Every person feels the same basic emotions, such as fear, happiness, anxiety and pain, yet each responds to them individually. When Kara’s grandmother died, for example, her sorrow was expressed through tears. Another person might show the same kind of sorrow in a quiet, reflective way. Similarly, when you hear a piece of good news, you may jump up with joy and may immediately decide to throw a party for your classmates and friends to share your happiness and joy; another person may just keep the good news to himself or herself and just enjoy the happiness secretly. As you observe how people handle their emotions, you start to form a picture of this part of their personality.

How does each person respond to these basic emotions?

(= People respond to the same basic emotions differently. The response is decided by his/her personality.)

Think about some specific examples to illustrate this point. For instance, what do you do when you feel happy and what about your friend with a different personality?

(= Open-ended.)

slide27
6. anxiety: n.
  • 1) fear and worry, esp. as caused by uncertainty about something
  • 他们对她的安全感到非常担忧。
  • (= They felt strong anxiety for her safety.)
  • 2) a strong wish to do something; eagerness
  • * anxiety to please (= 急于取悦)
  • Collocation:
  • anxiety about … 对……的焦虑
  • * There was much anxiety about the future of these theatres. 人们对这些剧院的前途忧心忡忡。
  • anxiety for … 为……担忧
  • display anxiety 表现出焦虑
  • relieve one’s anxiety 消除某人的忧虑
slide28
anxiety, concern & worry
  • anxiety意为“忧虑”、“担心”,往往指悬而未决或吉凶难卜的事所引起的焦虑与紧张,也指可能即将到来的灾难和不幸所产生的恐惧与忧虑。
  • concern意为“关心”、“关切”、“忧虑”,往往指出于尊敬或个人利益、兴趣等而对某事产生的关心与忧虑,不是无动于衷的状态,程度较缓和。
  • worry意为“烦恼”、“忧虑”,指一种内心深处的忧虑,其烦躁不安与反复思量的程度比anxiety深,并带有强烈的个人情感色彩。
  • 1) Life is full of _______.
  • 2) Everyone has ______ of his own.
  • 3) The Prime Minister expressed his ______ over the postal strike.
  • 4) Our ______ grew when the mountain climbers hadn’t returned by nightfall.
  • 5) It is a ______ to me having to leave the sick child alone in the house. 6) It’s my ______ for your future that makes me ask you all these questions.
  • Worries, anxieties, concern, anxiety, worry, concern
slide29
7. respond:v.
  • 1) act in answer
  • 他对我的建议报以一笑。
  • (= He responded to my suggestion with a laugh.)
  • 2) answer someone or something
  • * She responded to my letter with a phone call.
  • * He responded that he had not been in the building at the time.
slide30
answer, reply & respond
  • answer所回答的内容可能是表示同意、反对或提供有关情况,在较广泛的意义上可针对任何人所讲的话或所做的事作出反应。
  • reply所回答的是针对问题的陈述或声明。
  • respond通常指对号召、指责、请求等作出反应,也指一般口头或书面的回答或对某人行动的反应。
  • 1) She _______ that she would try to help him. (= replied)
  • 2) I asked him several questions, but he never ______. (= answered)
  • 3) Many young people ______ heartily to the call of the government. (= responded)
  • 4) When Tom insulted him, he ______ with a kick. (= responded)
  • 5) Our men ______ to the enemy’s fire. (= replied)
  • 6) I knocked at the door, but nobody ______. (= answered)
  • Replied, answered, responded, responded, replied, answered
slide31
8. keep (sth.) to: keep private to oneself
  • * He kept the news to himself.
  • * She doesn’t go out much; she likes to keep to herself.
  • (= 她不常出门,喜欢自己独处。)
slide32
People are also different in how they relate to others. This reveals the social side of their personality, and there are plenty of variations. Some people prefer the company of others rather than being alone. We say they are sociable. Others are just the opposite. Most people want some combination of the two.

What does “relate to” mean?

(= It means to have a certain relationship with.)

What category of personality traits does this sentence refer to?

(= It refers to the social traits of personality.)

slide33
9. reveal: vt.
  • 1) allow to be seen
  • * Close examination revealed a crack in the vase.
  • * The curtain opened, to reveal a darkened stage.
  • 2) make known
  • 我不能透露是谁告诉我的。
  • (= I can’t reveal who told me.)
  • * Teachers revealed to the press that they were going on strike.
slide34
Intellectual traits are the third part of personality. These qualities are influenced by the mind and how it works. One person may prefer spending his spare time in deep thought. Another may be more creative. Jake, for example, often has people in his class laughing. He sees humor in almost everything and is able to express it in entertaining ways.
slide35
10. influence:
  • 1) n.
  • ① the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of sb. or sth., or the effect itself
  • 父母对子女的影响
  • (= the influence of parents on their children)
  • ② person, fact, etc. that exercises such power
  • * Religion has been an influence for good in her life.
  • * We are subject to many influences.
  • 2) vt. have an effect on
  • * Don’t let me influence your decision.
  • * What influenced you to do it?
slide36
Collocation:
  • exert influence on … 对……施加影响
  • strengthen one’s influence 加强势力
  • under sb.’s influence 在某人的影响下
  • under the influence of … 在……的影响下
  • * drive under the influence of alcohol 酒后开车
  • outside influences 外界影响
slide37
The emotional, social, and intellectual traits of personality become apparent to others through behavior. Usually you need to get to know a person well enough before you can discover the full depth of that person’s personality.

How do you understand “the full depth of that person’s personality”?

(= It means what the person is truly like.)

Can you find a traditional Chinese saying with a similar meaning to this sentence?

(= 路遥知马力,日久见人心。)

slide38
When you start thinking about what you are like, you may start wondering why you are that way. Explaining why personalities develop as they do is not easy. That is because two influences are at work: heredity and environment. And no one really knows which one has the greater effect. In fact, the combination of these influences may not be the same for every person.

What do “these influences” refer to?

(= “These influences” refer to the heredity influence and the environment influence.)

What can be inferred from the sentence?

(= For different people, the two influences at work have different effects on them in the process of personality development.)

slide39
11. environment:n. the natural or social conditions in which people live
  • 不愉快的家庭环境能影响儿童的行为。
  • (= An unhappy home environment can affect a child’s behavior.)
  • Collocation:
  • clean up the environment 清理环境
  • improve the environment 改善环境
  • preserve/protect the environment 保护环境
  • pollute the environment 污染环境
slide40
Heredity is one influence on personality. Heredity is the set of characteristics that you inherit from your parents and ancestors. “He’s just like his father,” Mrs. Miller always says about her son Todd, now 17. Since Todd’s father died when the boy was only a year old, heredity explains the resemblances, for evidently, Todd has had no opportunity to learn these traits from his father.
slide41
11. inherit: vt.
  • 1) receive something from someone who has died or moved on
  • * He’s inherited a fortune from his rich uncle.
  • * The new administration inherited the economic problems of the last four years.
  • 2) derive (qualities, etc.) from an ancestor
  • * She inherited her mother’s good looks and her father’s bad temper.
slide42
12. resemblance: n. similarity, esp. in appearance; likeness
  • 你能看出家人之间的相似之处吗?
  • (= Can you see a family resemblance?)
  • * There’s a strong resemblance between the two sisters.
  • * She bears a resemblance to her mother.
slide43
CF: likeness, resemblance & similarity
  • 这三个词都是名词,都有“相像”、“相似”之意,在一些情况下可以通用。
  • likeness最普通,比resemblance意味更强。
  • resemblance主要是针对外观或外在的性质而言。
  • similarity多指物,强调性质、特色、程度的相似或类似。
  • 1) There is great _______ between his father and him.
  • 2) How much ______ is there between the two religions?
  • 3) He bears a strong ______ to the people depicted in his play.
  • 4) I can’t see much ______ between the two boys’ personalities.
  • Resemblance, similarity, resemblance, likeness
slide44
Other aspects of personality are shaped by what goes on around a person. Environment — the circumstances, objects, and conditions that surround people — also has an impact on personality. This influence is very strong and very complicated. Home life, for example, affects children’s personalities as they grow. People who feel loved and secure are likely to develop more positive personality traits than those who are troubled as they grow up. That is why divorce is a harmful social practice that often exerts a negative effect on the growth of young children.

Which kind of influence on personality does this sentence refer to?

(= It refers to the environment influence on personality.)

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

(= 性格的其他特征受到周围环境的影响。)

slide45
13. circumstance: n. [usu. pl.] a fact, condition, or event concerned with and influencing another event, person, or course of action
  • 如果情况允许,工作从星期一开始。
  • (= Work will begin on Monday if circumstances permit.)
  • Collocation:
  • in/under no circumstances 决不;无论如何都不
  • * Under no circumstances should you lend him any money. 你无论如何都不该把钱借给他。
  • in/under the circumstances 既然这样;在这种情况下
  • * She coped well in the circumstances, e.g. even though she was feeling ill. 她在这种情况下仍处理得当(如虽然身体不适)。
slide46
14. impact:n.
  • 1) the strong effect that something has on something else
  • * Her new idea made a great impact in the office.
  • * The new computer has made quite an impact on us.
  • 2) the force of one object hitting another
  • * the impact of a collision
  • (= 碰撞产生的冲击)
slide47
15. secure:adj.
  • 1) safe; protected against danger or risk
  • * a secure job
  • 2) closed, firm, or tight enough for safety
  • 离开房子之前要把窗户关紧。
  • (= Make the windows secure before leaving the house.)
  • Collocation:
  • secure against/from 免受……(侵害等)的
  • * secure against attack 免受攻击的
  • * secure from danger 没有危险
  • secure in 在……方面是牢固的
  • * secure in one’s beliefs 坚守自己的信仰
  • secure about 对……放心的
  • * He feels secure about his future. 他对自己的前途感到放心。
slide48
16. exert:vt. use strength or skills in a determined way for a particular purpose
  • * My wife’s been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my job.
  • * He exerted all his influence to make them accept his plan.
  • Collocation:
  • exert all one’s strength使出全身力气
  • exert influence on … 对……施加影响
  • exert pressure on … 给……压力
  • exert oneself 努力;尽力
  • 他不必为我费那么大力气。
  • (= He doesn’t have to exert himself on my behalf.)
  • * You’ll have to exert yourself more if you want to pass your exam.
slide49
Personalities make people interesting. How boring it would be if everyone had the same personality. On the other hand, some personalities are more pleasing than others. What about you? Are you satisfied with your personality? Or is there something — even a small quality — that you would like to change? Most people have at least some personality adjustments they would like to make.

Paraphrase the sentence.

(= Most people would like to change some of their personality traits.)

What can be inferred from this sentence?

(= The majority of people are not satisfied with their personality. Therefore they want to make some adjustments to improve it.)

slide50
Adolescence is a time for personality development, and personality is developing rightalong witheverything else. For young university students, shaping your personality as you want it to be may be easier now than later, for you are changing while you are learning. Think about the personality traits that you admire. Just as an athlete builds skills, you can build the personality you want to have, but only if you are determined to do so.

What is the precondition for a person to build his/her personality?

(= He/She has to make up his/her mind to do so.)

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

(= 正如运动员培养技能一样,你也能建立你想要有的个性,但一定要有决心才行。)

What does “along with” mean?

(= It means together with.)

What can you learn from this sentence?

(= As adolescents, we should take the chance to develop the personality we want to have.)

slide51
along with: together with
  • 他把一本地图册和其他书堆在一起。
  • (= He packed an atlas along with other books.)
  • * Tobacco is taxed in most countries, along with alcohol.
7 summary of text a
7. Summary of Text A
  • There are two main ideas about personality in Text A Point them out and list the supporting ideas that help develop each main idea.
  • Main Idea 1:
  • What is personality or the definition of personality.
  • Supporting Ideas:
  • Three elements of personality; emotional, social, intellectual
  • Main Idea 2:
  • The two factors that influence personality development are heredity and environment.
  • Supporting Ideas:
  • Heredity and its influence
  • Environment and its influence
  • Best stage/ life phase to develop personality