Chapter 1 Introduction to Strength Training and Conditioning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Strength Training and Conditioning
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Strength Training and Conditioning

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  1. Chapter 1Introduction to Strength Training and Conditioning

  2. Modalities of Strength Training and Conditioning (S&C) • Resistance (Weight) Training (RT) • Plyometrics • Sprint/Agility Training • Flexibility Exercises • Aerobic Training

  3. Health- and Skill-Related Components of Fitness Enhanced by S&C • Strength • Power • Speed • Jumping Ability

  4. Brief History of S&C: Early Origins • 2500 BC: art of strength contests on tomb walls in Egypt • 1800 BC: weight-throwing contests in Ireland • 1122-255 BC: strength tests in military in China • 6th century BC: rigorous military training in Greece • Spartan boys sent to military school at 6-7 years of age • Gymnastics, run, jump, javelin, discus, swim, & hunt • Olympic games • Greek strongman “Milo of Crotona”

  5. Brief History of S&C: Science & Medicine • 129-199 AD: Greek physician Galen • Recommended RT • Promoted use of handheld weights • Worked with gladiators • Renaissance • French writer Montaigne described benefits of RT • Camerarius (1544): wrote on RT health & performance benefit • Vesalius (1514-1564): wrote book on A&P • Albinus (1697-1770): wrote book on A&P

  6. Brief History of S&C: 19th Century • S&C gained in popularity • Physical educators brought ideas to U.S. from Europe • Rigorous training programs established in: • Gymnastics, manual RT, calisthenics, flexibility exercises, games/sports, dance • Use of ropes, medicine balls, dumbbells, clubs • Dudley Sargent (1849-1924): invented exercise machines & developed assessments of muscle strength

  7. Dudley Sargent

  8. Brief History of S&C: 19th Century (cont’d) • Era of the Strongmen (mid-1800s to early 1900s) • George Barker Windship:“health lift” • Louis Cyr (1863-1912): 4,337-lb back lift & horse pull • Louis Uni (1862-1928): juggled 20-kg weights • Ludwig Durlacher (1844-1924): invented Roman Chair • George Hackenschmidt (1877-1968): wrestling champion • Henry “Milo” Steinborn (1894-1989): developed barbell • Sigmund Klein (1902-1987): wrote articles on weight training • Thomas Inch (1881-1963):“Britain’s Strongest Youth” • Eugen Sandow (1867-1925): model for Mr. Olympia trophy

  9. Louis Cyr

  10. George Hackenschmidt

  11. Eugen Sandow

  12. Brief History of S&C: 20th Century • RT myths & misconceptions escalated • Strongmen marketed alternative RT equipment • Angelo Sicliano (1892-1972) • aka Charles Atlas • Developed training philosophy: “Dynamic Tension” • 1899: first issue of Physical Culture magazine • 1902:Strength Magazine published • 1894-1946: publication of many weight training books

  13. Charles Atlas

  14. Brief History of S&C: Competitive Lifting Sports • Weightlifting • 1891: First weightlifting championship • 1896: Weightlifting first entered Olympics • Bob Hoffman (1898-1895): “Father of American Weightlifting” • Bodybuilding • Begun in early 1900s • Mr. America competitions in 1930s & 1940s • Joe Weider: legendary bodybuilder

  15. Bob Hoffman

  16. Naim Suleymanoglu

  17. Joe Weider

  18. Brief History of S&C: Competitive Lifting Sports (cont’d) • Powerlifting • Evolved in late 1950s • Composed of squat, bench press, & deadlift • First championships in 1964 in York, PA • International Powerlifting Federation formed in 1972 • Powerlifting USA magazine published in 1980s • Strength Competitions • 1977: World’s Strongest Man competition begun • Involves athletes from multiple sports

  19. Brief History of S&C: Strength & Conditioning Today • RT Recommended for Virtually Everyone • Shown to Enhance: • Health • Well-being • Performance in clinical, fitness, & athletic populations • Increase in Scientific Study of RT since 1970s • Adopted by ACSM

  20. Why Do Individuals Resistance Train? • General fitness & recreation • Strength training • Power training • Muscular endurance training • Muscle hypertrophy • Rehabilitation & prehabilitation • Competitive lifting sports • Athletics • Maintenance training • Physiological adaptations • Integration training

  21. Health Benefits of RT • ↓ risk factors for disease • ↓ percent body fat • ↑ dynamic, isometric, & isokinetic muscle strength • ↑ muscle hypertrophy • ↑ muscular endurance • ↑ basal metabolic rate • ↓ blood pressure • ↓ blood lipids, LDL cholesterol • ↓ resting heart rate • ↓ cardiovascular demand to exercise • ↑ bone mineral density • ↑ glucose tolerance & insulin sensitivity • ↓ age-related muscle atrophy • ↓ risk of colon cancer & osteoporosis • ↑ Vo2max • ↑ flexibility • ↓ risk/symptoms low back pain

  22. Performance Benefits of RT • ↑ muscle power • ↑ balance & coordination • ↑ speed • ↑ capacity to perform activities of daily living • ↑ vertical jump ability • ↑ throwing velocity • ↑ kicking performance • ↑ running economy • ↑ baseball bat swinging velocity • ↑ tennis serve velocity • ↑ wrestling performance • ↑ cycling power & performance

  23. Fitness Components • Health-Related Fitness Components • Muscular strength • Muscular endurance • Cardiovascular endurance • Flexibility • Body composition

  24. Fitness Components (cont’d) • Skill-Related Fitness Components • Power • Speed • Agility • Balance & coordination • Reaction time

  25. Keys to Success: The RT Program • Muscle Action • Eccentric • Concentric • Isometric • Repetition • Set • Volume • Intensity • Frequency • Exercise Selection • Exercise Order • Rest Periods or Intervals • Repetition Velocity

  26. Competitive Forms of RT • Bodybuilding • Physique contest judged subjectively by panel • RT is essential component of training • Presentation of physique is critical • Compulsory poses • Choreographed posing routine • Training aimed at hypertrophy, symmetry, shape, & definition

  27. A Bodybuilder

  28. Competitive Forms of RT (cont’d) • Weightlifting • Only lifting sport in Olympics • Competition on amount of weight lifted relative to weight class • Two competitive lifts: • The snatch • The clean & jerk • Requires total body coordination, power, & speed

  29. A Weightlifter

  30. Competitive Forms of RT (cont’d) • Powerlifting • Maximal performance of three competition lifts: • Squat • Bench press • Deadlift • Placing is based on maximum lifting performance over 3 trials • Weight classes • Specialized equipment: bench press shirts, squat suits, erector shirts, wraps

  31. A Powerlifter

  32. Competitive Forms of RT (cont’d) • Strength Competitions • Involve: • Max dynamic & ISOM strength • Grip strength/endurance • Power • Strength endurance • Pain tolerance • Determination • Common events: • Farmer’s walk • Tire flipping • Various loading • Medleys • Barrel loading • Various deadlifts • Car walk • Duck walk

  33. A Strength Competitor

  34. The S&C Profession • Education and Proficiencies • Scholarly study • BS or BA degree in an exercise-related field • Master’s required in higher-level jobs • Personal experience • Playing sports • Training • Observations of other athletes & coaches • Professional practice

  35. The S&C Profession (cont’d) • Memberships and Certifications: Benefits • Access to educational resources • Dissemination of current knowledge • Networking • Career resources & job advertisements • Conferences & seminars • Certification information • Scholarships & grants • Merchandise • Liability insurance

  36. The S&C Profession (cont’d) • Memberships and Certifications: Organizations • National Strength & Conditioning Association (NSCA) • American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) • Collegiate Strength & Conditioning Coaches Association (CSCCa) • USA Weightlifting • International Sport Sciences Association (ISSA)

  37. The S&C Profession (cont’d) • Duties, Roles, and Responsibilities • Assess, motivate, educate, & train athletes to improve sport performance • Conduct sport-specific testing sessions • Design & implement safe & effective S&C programs • Provide guidance for athletes in nutrition & injury prevention