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The Ohio Resource Network for Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities University of Cincinnati

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  1. United States Departments of Education and Secret Service Final Report” United StatesSecret Service and theUnited States Department of EducationWashington D.C July 2004ED Pubs, Education Publications Center, U.S . Dept. of Education, P.O. Box 1398 Jessup MD 20794-13981—877-433-7827 The Ohio Resource Network for Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities University of Cincinnati Bonnie Hedrick, Ph.D., Director Robert Canning, M.Ed., Assistant Director Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  2. Final Report and Findingsof theSafe School Initiative:Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States Investigated shooters from 37 incidents of targeted school violence that occurred in the U. S. from December 1974 through May 2000 Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  3. After extensive examination, the following Final Report Findings were cited • Attackers were 13-18 yrs old (85 percent, n=35) • Three quarters of the attackers were white (76 percent, n=31) • Almost two thirds of the attackers came from two parent families (63 percent, n=26) • Largest group were well socialized and considered mainstream (41 percent n=17) • Nearly two-thirds of the attackers had neverbeen or rarely in trouble at school (63 percent n=26) Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  4. Final Report and Findings continued • Largest group of attackers doing well in school As and Bs in their courses (41 percent n=17) • Most attackers showed no marked change in academic performance (56 percent n=23), friendship patterns (73 percent n=30), interest in school (59 percent n=24), or school disciplinary problems (68 percent n=28)prior to their attacks. • Almost three-quarters of the attackers felt persecuted, bullied or injured by others prior to the attack (71 percent n=29) Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  5. Final Report and Findings continued -- ATTACKERS -- • Interest in violent movies (27 percent n=11) • Interest in violent books (24 percent n=10) • Interest in violent video games(12 percent n=5) • Interest in violence in their own writings such as poems, essays, or journal entries (37 percent n=15) Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  6. HOWEVERevery shooter displayed behavior leading up to the incident* difficulty coping with loss* their behavior was flagged by others at school* other students were talked to… * other student(s) were asked to take part…* almost three-quarters of the attackers felt persecuted, bullied or injured by others prior to the attack Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  7. Final Report10 key findings • Attacks were rarely sudden, impulsive acts. • Most attackers did not threaten targets prior to attack. • Most attackers engaged in behavior prior to the incident that caused others to be concerned. • Most attackers had difficulty coping with significant losses or personal failures. • Most attackers had access to and had used weapons prior to the attack. • Most attackers were stopped by other means other than law enforcement interventions. Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  8. Final Report10 key findings, continued 7. Other peopleknew about the attacker’s idea and/or plan to attack. • In many cases other students wereinvolved in some capacity. 9. 71 percent of the attackers felt persecuted, bullied or were injured by others prior to the attack. There is no accurate or useful profile. Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  9. 37 Incidents of targeted school violence by month School Year Monthly Incidents • September 25th • October 1st 5th 12th(2) and 15th • November 8th 15th and 19th • December 1st(2),4th 6th 14th(2) 15th and 30th • January 18th 21st and 23rd • February 2nd 8th and 19th • March 2nd 24th 25th • April 16th 20th and 24th • May 1st 14th 18th 19th 20th 24th and 26th(2) 9 fall 28 spring Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  10. 1992-2005 AllSchool Year ViolenceFirst half vs Second half 43 Students killed 23 Students killed Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  11. School Safety Plans need to address • Mitigation/ prevention(minimize or mitigate impact thru policy/ steps to improve culture and climate) • Preparedness….. It will occur, so crisis plan is needed • Response…containment vs. resolution • Recovery …meeting mental health needs Why?If a school, district, or state does not take all necessary actions in good faith to create safe schools, it could be vulnerable to a suit for negligence. Source:U.S. Dept. of Education: Safe and Drug-Free Schools Division Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  12. Emergency Operations Manual Template • All hazards approach • Levels of threat • First Responder contact information • Emergency Staging areas • Emergency Preparedness Roles and Responsibilities • School Drills • Cancel, lockdown, evacuation, shelter-in-place etc. • Secondary Protective Response Options • Drop, cover and hold, hit the deck • Forms(ex: bomb threat caller information to be collected) Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  13. “I believe that parents drop off their kids in the morning at my door….safe and sound. It is my job to keep them as safe as humanly possible until I give them back… but I’ve got to tell you, every school is but one breath away from what could be a major crisis.” Mike Hall, Principal Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  14. So what should a “one breath away” School Safety Plan look like? The School’s best safety plan is its people…Kids are partners “safe keepers” of each other and adults. They hear and read about school violence, and they want a safe environment too. The school’s best safety plan has a philosophy that makescommunication key to preventing violence And Communication involves: * A well thought out Visitor policy that can do two things: 1. Welcome all; and 2. Asking the visitor why they are there * word of mouth ….kids tapping into other kid’s problems * trusting adults …in the building for students to talk with * trusting adults …that students knowwill handle their concern properly Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  15. Communication continued * Keyless entry system(computer control to change quickly) * Parking lot cameras with trained students empowered to to watch them (safe keepers) Needed… a personalized environment (school climate and culture that is accepting of all students/staff), break the student body down into smaller units. So if a student is having a problem, support people can deal with that effectively Note: metal detectors, surveillance cameras don’t keep watch…. People keep watch Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  16. All School Staff need Quick Guides which include Common Drills and Crisis Team Procedures Ohio Resource Network www.ebasedprevention.org or 1-800-788-7254

  17. Incident Command System Evacuation Lockdown • * Stay calm; your attitude/actions will be mirrored by student • * Take class roster when evacuating the classroom/ building* Remember structural damage may block usual evacuation routes • * Care for emotionally, medically fragile ` students • * If bomb threat, do not touch, move or disturb unidentified packages. Do not use walkie-talkies or cell phones as they have the potential to detonate bomb(s) School Crisis Management Guide: For Timely Response to School Emergencies One guide per adult in your school district Free while quantities last at our clearinghouse by calling 1-800-788-7254 opt #1

  18. U.S. DOE Practical Information on Crisis Planning • Write to: ED Pubs, Education Publications Center, V.S. Dept. of Ed. P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398 Phone # 1-800-USA-LEARN • Order on line: www.ed.gov/about/ordering.jspTTY# 1-800-437-0833