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  1. Human Uses of Plants Sugar “White Gold” Prepared By: Alexander Bahadur & Amos Soma Prepared For: Ms. Tran Due Date: October 3rd, 2011

  2. Plant Source Sugarcane is used to make sugar. It is of the genus Saccharum. Entire cane is used in production of this product.

  3. Natural History of Sugar Cane • Sugar cane grows in tropical regions • Is a member of the grass family • high in sugar content • Temperatures a below freezing will cause the sugar cane to die. • Need to grow in warm climates to thrive • Sugar cane can grow from 4-12 inches high and 0.75-2 inches wide • Sugar canes are planted with 4 feet of separation between each other

  4. Historical Use of Sugar Cane • Worldwide:  • 20,000 BC, people of South Pacific Islands converted sugar cane into sugar.  (Naturally Found) • 500 BC, India first nation to extract sugar from canes to make crude sugar. • Canada: • First refinery established in Canada in 1818 - Almost 50 years before Confederation. • Prior to 1818, forced to import either expensive refined sugar or low-grade raw sugar. • Canadian production of sugar is done so with Sugar Beets.

  5. How Sugar Affects You • Sugar is used in a wide variety of human foods, on a daily basis. • It is used as a preservative, a colour and texture enhancer, and of course, to add sweetness to a dish. • Of all foods consumed by humans, sugar is considered to be the most harmful to our health. • Refined sugar depletes body of vitamins, and excessive ingestion can cause teeth decay. • Sugar also makes our blood very thick and sticky, which inhibits blood flow, and leads to serious complications. • Sugar is known to induce diabetes, increase chances of heart disease, and can lead to obesity, if ingested excessively.

  6. How Sugar is Made • Steps to Converting Sugar Cane into Sugar: • 1) Plant plants 4 feet apart • Need lots of sunshine and water for approximately 12 months for them to mature, (figure varies in different countries) • 2) When fully grown, it is time for harvesting. • Cut down at stem of the sugar cane, careful to leave the roots untouched so they can re grow for the next season • Harvest time is usually in dry season and lasts from 2 ½ months to 11 months • 3) Once harvested, it is sent to a factory, (to be converted into sugar), or stores, (to be sold as whole cane) • 4) To extract the sugary juices, large roller mills are used to crush the sugar cane • 5) Next is the boiling process, as the juices are boiled until the sugars crystallize • 6) Raw sugar refined into finished product upon arrival in nation of intended use

  7. Production Impact on Environment • Production of cane sugar releases: • Air emissions, solid wastes and waste waters • Threatens surrounding eco-systems by: • Extensive use of water for irrigation purposes • Use of agricultural chemicals in farming • Polluted waste water which is routinely released during production • Harvesting sugar cane can lead to biodiversity loss, due to destructive nature of harvesting

  8. Environmental Implicatons

  9. Importance of Product to Society Used sugar as bartering item in the Middle Ages, times of the Vikings, and in earlier civilizations People of the Caribbean, South America and the West Indies were given a large, profitable business of production Most important commodity in growth of Europe in 16th, 17th and 18th centuries Protection of sugar-islands led to easy independent pulls of American Colonies in the 1700’s Therefore, cane sugar is a significantly important product in our society, as it has helped to shape our world immensely

  10. Sugar Use of Society Tonnes Sugar Consumption of Canada

  11. References Canadian Sugar Institute - Sugar from Field to Table." Canadian Sugar Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sugar.ca/english/consumers/sugarfromfield.cfm>. Redpath How Sugar Is Made." Redpath Sugar. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <http://www.redpathsugars.com/HowSugarIsMade.php>. "How sugar is made - manufacture, used, processing, parts, components, composition, steps, product, industry, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of sugar, Byproducts." How Products Are Made. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Sugar.html>. "Sugar." Sugar. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sugar.org/>. SKIL - How Sugar Cane Is Made." Sugar Knowledge International Limited SKIL. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sucrose.com/lcane.html>. Industry, -products of the sugar. "CANE, SUGAR AND THE ENVIRONMENT." FAO: FAO Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/X4988E/x4988e01.htm>. Century, the middle of the 19th, distributed among the sugar plantations of Brazil, and the Caribbean.. " How Sugar Changed the World | LiveScience ." Current News on Space, Animals, Technology, Health, Environment, Culture and History | LiveScience. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http://www.livescience.com/4949-sugar-changed-world.html>.

  12. Thank You!