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Setion 11 Vocab - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Setion 11 Vocab

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  1. Setion 11 Vocab • Encephalo- brain • Gastro- stomach • Hepato- liver • Gloss/o- tongue • Glute- buttocks • Larynglo- larynx • My/o-muscle • nephr/o- kidney • Neuro- nerve • Oste/o- bone • Ot/o- ear • Opthalm/o- eye • Path/o- disease • Pneomon/o- lung • Rhin/o-nose • Thorac/o- chest/thorax

  2. Section 12 Vocab • -ism, -osis, -tion: condition • -ist, -or, -er, ician: agent • -centesis: to puncture • -ectomy: to cut out & remove • -pexy: to fix or repair • -rraphy: to suture, sew • -scopy: to view • -cide: kill or destroy • -emia: of the blood • -gram: writing or record • -graph: recording instrument • -malacia: soft • -phasia: speech • -phobia: fear

  3. Long winter road End of 1st semester update

  4. The Lymphatic System (Ch. 21) Functions *maintain fluid balance *immunity

  5. Overview • Returns leaked plasma to the blood vessels • Cleanses plasma of bacteria and foreign matter • Provides surveillance sites by immune system cells • Nonspecific defenses: prevent pathogen entry; prevent spread of diseases caused by microorganisms; strengthen the immune system

  6. Overview • the lymphatic system is the most important physiological system of combating foreign bodies such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi • it consists macroscopically of: the bone marrow, spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix, and a few other organs.

  7. Overview • functioning of the lymphatic system is most easily seen at the microscopic level where the white blood cell is the single most important element. • white blood cells are produced, as are red blood cells, in the marrow of human bone.

  8. Consists of 2 semi-independent parts: A. Network of lymphatic vessels- collect excess fluid (now called lymph) from tissues and returnit to the bloodstream. B. Lymphoid tissues and organs- house phagocytotic cells and lymphocytes

  9. II. Lymphatic Vessel Transport Lymphatic capillaries- weave between cells and blood capillaries, microscopic Lymph collecting veins/ vessels

  10. Lymph trunks- drain fairly large area of body; include lumbar, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular, intestinal

  11. Lymph Ducts- R lymphatic duct (R upper arm & R head and thorax), Thoracic duct (rest of body)

  12. Lymph empties into venous circulation at internal jugular vein and subclavian veins • 3L of lymph enters bloodstream every 24 hrs

  13. III. Lymphoid Cells • A. Lymphocytes- warriors of the immune system • T cells- manage immune response, somedirectly attack foreign cells • B cells- make plasma cells that secrete antibodies

  14. B. Macrophages- phagocytize foreign substances, help activate T cells C. Reticular cells- make stroma, the network that supports other cell types

  15. IV. Lymphoid Organs • A. Lymph nodes- hundreds but large clusters in inguinal, axillary, cervical areas • 1. Functions • filter lymph- macrophages • help activate immune system- lymphocytes

  16. 2. Structure a. node surrounded by DWF capsule b. 2 regions: cortex, medulla

  17. B. Spleen- left side of and cavity below diaphragm 1. Functions a. Lymphocyte proliferation b. Immune surveillance & response c. Clean blood- macrophages d. Store rbc breakdown products e. RBC production in fetus f. stores platelets

  18. C. Thymus- throat/ chest region 1. Grows during childhood, stops growing during adolescence and atrophies gradually. 2. Functions a. Secrete hormones that allow T cells to function properly b. Only lymph organ not directly fighting antigens

  19. D. Tonsils- ring of tissue around pharynx • Named by location • palatine- most often infected • lingual • pharyngeal (adenoids) • tubal • Function- gather and remove many pathogens entering pharynx in inhaled air or food (blind-ended crypts)

  20. E. Peyer's Patches- isolated clusters of lymph follicles in small intestine • 1. Function • destroys bacteria • generates "memory“ lymphocytes for long-term immunity

  21. F. Appendix- clusters of lymph follicles; offshoot of cecum of large intestine ** Peyers + appendix + tonsils + bronchi lymph nodes = Mucosa associated lymph tissue (MALT)- protects digestive and respiratory systems