Science Form 1 (Chapter 1) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 1 introduction to science n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Science Form 1 (Chapter 1) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Science Form 1 (Chapter 1)

play fullscreen
1 / 64
Science Form 1 (Chapter 1)
1662 Views
Download Presentation
syamsensei
Download Presentation

Science Form 1 (Chapter 1)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Science Form 1 Chapter 1 : Introduction to Science syamsensei@gmail.com

  2. WHAT IS SCIENCE? • Science is the systematic study of natureand how it affects us and our environment. • Science can explain natural phenomena that happen in our environment. • How? • Through careful observations, studies and scientific investigations. syamsensei@gmail.com

  3. List some of natural phenomena: syamsensei@gmail.com

  4. CAREERS IN SCIENCE Archeologist Doctor Environmentalist syamsensei@gmail.com Forensic technician Science teacher

  5. VARIOUS FIELDS IN SCIENCE • Science covers a very wide area of study and is divided into various fields, such as: • Biology: the study of living things • Physics : the study of interaction of matter and energy • Chemistry : the study of composition and chemical properties of substances, their reactions and uses • Geology : the study of rocks and minerals • Astronomy : the study of the stars and planets • Meteorology : the study of weather and climate syamsensei@gmail.com

  6. A SCIENCE LABORATORY syamsensei@gmail.com

  7. What are the good practices demonstrated by the student? • Wearing goggles • Carrying bottles by the body; not the neck syamsensei@gmail.com

  8. GENERAL RULES AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS syamsensei@gmail.com

  9. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS Tripod stand and wire gauze Bunsen burner syamsensei@gmail.com Test tube Crucible

  10. Syringe Test tube holder Retort stand and clamp syamsensei@gmail.com

  11. 1.2 Scientific Investigation syamsensei@gmail.com

  12. Steps in scientific investigation • Identifying problem • Forming a hypothesis • Planning the experiment • Controlling the variables • Collecting data • Analysing and interpreting data • Drawing a conclusion • Writing a report syamsensei@gmail.com

  13. List the steps of scientific investigation. syamsensei@gmail.com

  14. 2. Write down a report on Simple pendulum experiment. syamsensei@gmail.com

  15. Simple pendulum experiment syamsensei@gmail.com

  16. WRITING A REPORT • Aim • Problem statement • Hypothesis • Variables • Materials and apparatus • Procedure • Results • Analysis • Conclusion syamsensei@gmail.com

  17. 1. Aim • To investigate how the length of the pendulum string affect the time for 10 complete swings of the pendulum. 2. Problem statement • How the length of the pendulum string affect the time for 10 complete swings of the pendulum? syamsensei@gmail.com

  18. 3. Hypothesis • If the length of the pendulum is longer, the time taken for 10 complete swing of the pendulum is longer. syamsensei@gmail.com

  19. 4. Variables • Manipulated (what to change) : the length of the pendulum • Responding (what is observed) : time taken for 10 complete swings • Constant (kept the same) : mass of the pendulum bob syamsensei@gmail.com

  20. 5. Materials and apparatus • Pendulum bob, string/thread, retort stand and clamp, stop watch • Apparatus set-up: syamsensei@gmail.com

  21. 6. Procedure (active sentence) • Prepare the simple pendulum with a 10cm long thread. • Pull the pendulum bob to one side, then release. • Record the time taken for 10 complete oscillations in a table. • Repeat the experiment using a simple pendulum of different lengths, e.g. 20cm, 30cm, 40cm and 50cm. • Draw a graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations. syamsensei@gmail.com

  22. 6. Procedure (change to passive sentence when writing a report) • A simple pendulum with a 10 cm long thread was prepared. • The pendulum was pulled to one side, and then was released. • The time taken for 10 complete oscillations was recorded in a table. • The experiment was repeated using a simple pendulum with 20cm, 30cm, 40 and 50cm long. • A graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations was drawn. syamsensei@gmail.com

  23. 7. Results (data table) syamsensei@gmail.com

  24. 7. Results (data table) syamsensei@gmail.com

  25. 8. Analysis • Graph of time taken for 10 complete oscillations versus length of simple pendulum. syamsensei@gmail.com

  26. 8. Analysis From the graph, we can say that: • The pendulum with a longer string takes time to oscillate than the pendulum with a shorter string. 2. The time taken for the pendulum to make one complete oscillation will when the pendulum string is longer. longer increase syamsensei@gmail.com

  27. 9. Conclusion • From the results, the hypothesis is . • The time taken for the simple pendulum to make one complete oscillation with the length of the pendulum. accepted increases syamsensei@gmail.com

  28. 1.3 physical quantities and their units syamsensei@gmail.com

  29. measurement • Measurement is important because: • It helps to describe things everyday; • It is a part of the scientific investigation process (e.g: simple pendulum experiment) syamsensei@gmail.com

  30. Measurement syamsensei@gmail.com

  31. Physical quantities • A physical quantity is something that can be measured. • There are five basic quantities: length, time, mass, temperature and electric current. • Measurement of physical quantities consist of two parts: • A number indicating value or how much; • A unit of measurement. syamsensei@gmail.com

  32. Standard units: S.I. Units • Unit is a scale that helps you understand a particular measurement. • S.I units: International standard unit of measurement (Systeme International d’ Unites). syamsensei@gmail.com

  33. Importance of standard units • Allow us to analyse data and compare information easily and more accurately; • No confusion because there is specific symbols for each unit; • Allow us to solve problems related to measurement. syamsensei@gmail.com

  34. Five basic quantities syamsensei@gmail.com

  35. Prefixes • Prefixes are added to units like meter and gram when we need to state values that are too small or too large. syamsensei@gmail.com

  36. 1.4 CONCEPT OF MASS AND WEIGHT syamsensei@gmail.com

  37. syamsensei@gmail.com

  38. syamsensei@gmail.com

  39. WHAT IS WEIGHT? • The weight of an object is the pull of the Earth (force of gravity) on the object. • The S.I unit of weight is Newton (N). • The weight of any object depends on the gravitational force. • The weight of an object is obtained using a spring balance or compression spring balance. syamsensei@gmail.com

  40. syamsensei@gmail.com

  41. WHAT IS MASS? • The mass of an object is the quantity of matter in the object. • The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg). • The mass of an object can be obtained using a triple beam balance or lever balance. syamsensei@gmail.com

  42. Exercise 5: Can u differentiate between mass and weight? syamsensei@gmail.com

  43. Can u differentiate between mass and weight? syamsensei@gmail.com

  44. 1.6) MEASURING TOOLS syamsensei@gmail.com

  45. Measuring Length • Tools: ruler, metre rule, measuring tape • Measuring the length of a straight line: • Using metre rule or a ruler • Correct position of eye (to avoid parallax error) syamsensei@gmail.com

  46. Measuring the length of a curve: • Using a ruler and a piece of thread • A knot is tied at the end of a thread • The thread is stretched along the curve carefully • Make a mark at the end of the curve • Stretch the thread along the ruler to obtain the length • Using an opisometer syamsensei@gmail.com

  47. Measuring the diameter of a spherical object: • Using two wooden blocks and a ruler • Using a set-square and a ruler syamsensei@gmail.com

  48. Measuring the diameter of an object: • The external diameter is measured using external calipers and a ruler • The internal diameter is measured using internal caliper and a ruler. syamsensei@gmail.com

  49. Measuring the thickness of an object: • The thickness of a piece of paper can be determined by measuring the thickness of a stack of papers and dividing the value of number of sheets of paper. syamsensei@gmail.com

  50. The thickness of a glass tube can be measured by taking the difference between its external and internal diameter. syamsensei@gmail.com