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## Science Form 1 (Chapter 1)

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**Science Form 1**Chapter 1 : Introduction to Science syamsensei@gmail.com**WHAT IS SCIENCE?**• Science is the systematic study of natureand how it affects us and our environment. • Science can explain natural phenomena that happen in our environment. • How? • Through careful observations, studies and scientific investigations. syamsensei@gmail.com**List some of natural phenomena:**syamsensei@gmail.com**CAREERS IN SCIENCE**Archeologist Doctor Environmentalist syamsensei@gmail.com Forensic technician Science teacher**VARIOUS FIELDS IN SCIENCE**• Science covers a very wide area of study and is divided into various fields, such as: • Biology: the study of living things • Physics : the study of interaction of matter and energy • Chemistry : the study of composition and chemical properties of substances, their reactions and uses • Geology : the study of rocks and minerals • Astronomy : the study of the stars and planets • Meteorology : the study of weather and climate syamsensei@gmail.com**A SCIENCE LABORATORY**syamsensei@gmail.com**What are the good practices demonstrated by the student?**• Wearing goggles • Carrying bottles by the body; not the neck syamsensei@gmail.com**GENERAL RULES AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS**syamsensei@gmail.com**COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS**Tripod stand and wire gauze Bunsen burner syamsensei@gmail.com Test tube Crucible**Syringe**Test tube holder Retort stand and clamp syamsensei@gmail.com**1.2 Scientific Investigation**syamsensei@gmail.com**Steps in scientific investigation**• Identifying problem • Forming a hypothesis • Planning the experiment • Controlling the variables • Collecting data • Analysing and interpreting data • Drawing a conclusion • Writing a report syamsensei@gmail.com**List the steps of scientific**investigation. syamsensei@gmail.com**2. Write down a report on Simple**pendulum experiment. syamsensei@gmail.com**Simple pendulum experiment**syamsensei@gmail.com**WRITING A REPORT**• Aim • Problem statement • Hypothesis • Variables • Materials and apparatus • Procedure • Results • Analysis • Conclusion syamsensei@gmail.com**1. Aim**• To investigate how the length of the pendulum string affect the time for 10 complete swings of the pendulum. 2. Problem statement • How the length of the pendulum string affect the time for 10 complete swings of the pendulum? syamsensei@gmail.com**3. Hypothesis**• If the length of the pendulum is longer, the time taken for 10 complete swing of the pendulum is longer. syamsensei@gmail.com**4. Variables**• Manipulated (what to change) : the length of the pendulum • Responding (what is observed) : time taken for 10 complete swings • Constant (kept the same) : mass of the pendulum bob syamsensei@gmail.com**5. Materials and apparatus**• Pendulum bob, string/thread, retort stand and clamp, stop watch • Apparatus set-up: syamsensei@gmail.com**6. Procedure (active sentence)**• Prepare the simple pendulum with a 10cm long thread. • Pull the pendulum bob to one side, then release. • Record the time taken for 10 complete oscillations in a table. • Repeat the experiment using a simple pendulum of different lengths, e.g. 20cm, 30cm, 40cm and 50cm. • Draw a graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations. syamsensei@gmail.com**6. Procedure (change to passive sentence when writing a**report) • A simple pendulum with a 10 cm long thread was prepared. • The pendulum was pulled to one side, and then was released. • The time taken for 10 complete oscillations was recorded in a table. • The experiment was repeated using a simple pendulum with 20cm, 30cm, 40 and 50cm long. • A graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations was drawn. syamsensei@gmail.com**7. Results (data table)**syamsensei@gmail.com**7. Results (data table)**syamsensei@gmail.com**8. Analysis**• Graph of time taken for 10 complete oscillations versus length of simple pendulum. syamsensei@gmail.com**8. Analysis**From the graph, we can say that: • The pendulum with a longer string takes time to oscillate than the pendulum with a shorter string. 2. The time taken for the pendulum to make one complete oscillation will when the pendulum string is longer. longer increase syamsensei@gmail.com**9. Conclusion**• From the results, the hypothesis is . • The time taken for the simple pendulum to make one complete oscillation with the length of the pendulum. accepted increases syamsensei@gmail.com**1.3 physical quantities and their units**syamsensei@gmail.com**measurement**• Measurement is important because: • It helps to describe things everyday; • It is a part of the scientific investigation process (e.g: simple pendulum experiment) syamsensei@gmail.com**Measurement**syamsensei@gmail.com**Physical quantities**• A physical quantity is something that can be measured. • There are five basic quantities: length, time, mass, temperature and electric current. • Measurement of physical quantities consist of two parts: • A number indicating value or how much; • A unit of measurement. syamsensei@gmail.com**Standard units: S.I. Units**• Unit is a scale that helps you understand a particular measurement. • S.I units: International standard unit of measurement (Systeme International d’ Unites). syamsensei@gmail.com**Importance of standard units**• Allow us to analyse data and compare information easily and more accurately; • No confusion because there is specific symbols for each unit; • Allow us to solve problems related to measurement. syamsensei@gmail.com**Five basic quantities**syamsensei@gmail.com**Prefixes**• Prefixes are added to units like meter and gram when we need to state values that are too small or too large. syamsensei@gmail.com**1.4 CONCEPT OF MASS AND WEIGHT**syamsensei@gmail.com**WHAT IS WEIGHT?**• The weight of an object is the pull of the Earth (force of gravity) on the object. • The S.I unit of weight is Newton (N). • The weight of any object depends on the gravitational force. • The weight of an object is obtained using a spring balance or compression spring balance. syamsensei@gmail.com**WHAT IS MASS?**• The mass of an object is the quantity of matter in the object. • The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg). • The mass of an object can be obtained using a triple beam balance or lever balance. syamsensei@gmail.com**Exercise 5: Can u differentiate between mass and weight?**syamsensei@gmail.com**Can u differentiate between mass and weight?**syamsensei@gmail.com**1.6) MEASURING TOOLS**syamsensei@gmail.com**Measuring Length**• Tools: ruler, metre rule, measuring tape • Measuring the length of a straight line: • Using metre rule or a ruler • Correct position of eye (to avoid parallax error) syamsensei@gmail.com**Measuring the length of a curve:**• Using a ruler and a piece of thread • A knot is tied at the end of a thread • The thread is stretched along the curve carefully • Make a mark at the end of the curve • Stretch the thread along the ruler to obtain the length • Using an opisometer syamsensei@gmail.com**Measuring the diameter of a spherical object:**• Using two wooden blocks and a ruler • Using a set-square and a ruler syamsensei@gmail.com**Measuring the diameter of an object:**• The external diameter is measured using external calipers and a ruler • The internal diameter is measured using internal caliper and a ruler. syamsensei@gmail.com**Measuring the thickness of an object:**• The thickness of a piece of paper can be determined by measuring the thickness of a stack of papers and dividing the value of number of sheets of paper. syamsensei@gmail.com**The thickness of a glass tube can be measured by taking the**difference between its external and internal diameter. syamsensei@gmail.com