ME 350 – Lecture 18 – DFA Part 2 • DFA Part Analysis – “the 3 questions” • Determining Assembly Efficiency • Examples of Improving Part Design • Product Principles • Part Principles
DFA Analysis Three question of DFA Analysis : • Does this part have to be a different material? • Does this part move relative to all other parts? • Does this part have to be separate (due to function) for other parts to work? “No’s” point out where the opportunities are to combine parts or improve assembly.
Determining Assembly Efficiency • DFA Efficiency = • Where NM is the theoretical minimum number of parts, • And, TM is the time to make the product or its total “assembly time” • “Ideal” assembly is roughly 3 seconds per part
Tray Example 3: DFA analysis questions – side panel: • Does material have to be different? • Moves relative to all other parts? • Does it need to be separate to work? Assembly efficiency • Total assembly time: • Efficiency =
Tray Example 1: DFA analysis questions - handle: • Does material have to be different? • Moves relative to all other parts? • Does it need to be separate to work? Assembly efficiency • Total assembly time: • Efficiency =
Example – shaft indexer: DFA analysis questions for indent tooth: • Does material have to be different? • Moves relative to all other parts? • Does it need to be separate to work? Old design = 24 parts
'Product' DFA - Principle #1. • Design for minimum number of parts: • Are all components essential or can their functions be achieved by modifying an existing component? • Can components be combined into an integral multifunctional component? Old design = 8 parts New design = 3 parts
'Product' DFA - Principle #2. • Minimize number of fasteners and their components • Use snap fits where possible • Use press fits where disassembly is not required • Consider molded hinges, straps, or hook-unders • Rationalize fasteners - types, lengths etc. • Use one piece fasteners with lead in pilots • Design geometry for automatic alignment
Ex. Applications of Principle #2. Hook-under design to minimize number of fasteners
Ex. Applications of Principle #2. Use single-piece fasteners, with guide pilots or inserts lead in pilot
Ex. Applications of Principle #2. Snap fits - can be designed for ease of assembly & disassembly Recess for release of snap
Ex. Applications of Principle #2. Hinges, straps and/or snap fits: Living hinge (thinned section of plastic) or molded in strap Snap fit
'Product' DFA - Principle #3. • Design the product for assembly from one direction • Where possible assemblies should be designed so that a base piece is established, and remaining parts assembled from one, ideally vertical (Z) direction. • It is difficult to feed components in from the side. • The Sony walkman is an excellent example: parts were inserted in straight-down moves only. This enabled a simple robotic system to be used for the entire assembly.
'Product' DFA - Principle #4. • Avoid the need to turn the assembly over • If previously placed components have not been fastened, they may move out of position. • Datum and location points change, and complicate the assembly process, which leads to jamming and assembly failure.
'Product' DFA - Principle #5. • Standardize Components, Materials, and Fasteners • Components can be difficult to differentiate, particularly small similar shaped ones. • It is relatively common for feeders to become jammed because wrong parts have been fed in by operators. • Considerable savings in storage, inventory, ordering etc.
'Product' DFA - Principle #6. • Provide location surfaces that are closely related to datum surfaces • This ensures a known location tolerance for the automatic placing of components. • Care should be taken to avoid tolerance build-up (the positional tolerance of one part depending upon the positional tolerance of other parts).
'Product' DFA Principle #7 • Consider ease of disassembly for maintenance, service, repair, and recycling • Integral snap fits, press fits, and retaining clips (circlips) allow compact designs, but if care is not taken, result in impossible disassembly • Disassembly is frequently necessary due to the need to service/repair, and now the requirement to recycle
'Product' DFA Principle #8. • Adopt a modular design philosophy for the product group • Allows model variations to be accomplished at a sub-system level. Subassembly volumes increase, total parts decrease. • Modular sub-assemblies may be built and tested by specialist teams (higher quality).
Modular Design: assembly time reduced from 540 hrs to 180 hrs Design time per crane = 350 man hrs - 18hrs Fabrication time = 1500 hrs to 550 hrs
'Product' DFA - Principle #9. Avoid the need for assembly adjustments • Equipment going out of adjustment is one of the biggest causes of customer dissatisfaction. • Spring loading can be used to avoid assembly adjustment and to eliminate adjustment for wear.
'Product' DFA - Principle #10. • Minimize assembly steps and extra operations • Each assembly step or operation must be resourced • Mistakes in assembly are one of the greatest cause of product malfunction and customer returns. The fewer the steps the fewer the opportunities for error. • Extra operations such as applying grease, sealants, turning part over etc. add time and reduce assembly efficiency.
‘Part’ DFA - Principle #1 • Components should be symmetrical or have exaggerated asymmetry Symmetrical shapes have a predictable rest aspect Non-symmetrical shapes have an unpredictable resting aspect With exaggerated asymmetry part falls on one of its flat faces
‘Part’ DFA - Principle #2 • Components should have the least number of important directions • Increases the probability of correct feeding and positioning A B B A
‘Part’ DFA - Principle #3 • Provide Lead-in or Chamfers • Where possible make chamfers and lead-in angles generous, and avoid sharp corners, to avoid jamming:
‘Part’ DFA - Principle #4 • Design parts to prevent tangling: • Often a small design change can eliminate the tendency of components to tangle. Close ends and keep material thickness greater than gaps and slots:
Analysis: air pump • Which parts (or functions) are functionally necessary? • Which parts might not be necessary? • Which parts can be improved?
DFA Analysis Summary • To improve a product design: • Look for parts that move together • Look for fastening mechanisms to simplify • Look for ways to reduce the part count • Look for ways to increase part symmetry
Quotes: • First keep the peace within yourself, then you can also bring peace to others. - Thomas Kempis • Have patience with all things, but first of all with yourself. - St. Francis de Sales • A person with outward courage dares to die. A person with inward courage dares to live.- Lao-Tzu • Forgiveness means giving up all hope of a better past.- Landrum Bolling • The supreme happiness of life is the conviction of being loved for yourself, or, more correctly, being loved in spite of yourself.- Victor Hugo • The highest wisdom is loving kindness.