Gender mainstreaming in ground water management A presentation by N. Neseni
Purpose of the presentation • To highlight the key cross cutting issues of gender , ground water management • To create awareness and interest among water professionals, researchers , managers and planners so that they may consider these issues not just as “other consideration” but as key to realization of ground water management goals and objectives.
Why gender matters in water management • Dealing with water scarcity, competition for water and pollution, the water manager has to find a way to fulfill the needs and reduce the impacts. • Poor women and men are affected and impacted on by water, economically, socially and environmentally
Environmental sustainability Environmental sustainability means assuring the capacity of nature to support life. Within the context of IWRM this means a healthy water cycle, adequate water for nature, and less water pollution. Forests and wetlands, among other ecosystems, help regulate water flow and quality. Wise efforts to manage water resources sustainably and ensure long-term water availability must include integrated actions to protect ecosystems and ensure environmental sustainability. On contrary, poor management of water resources will result in largely negative and often irreversible changes to the environment. Long-term water availability requires that ecosystems are able to continue to regulate water quality and quantity
Economic efficiency Economic efficiency Water is vital for economic and social development and is indispensable to sustain and increase urban and rural livelihood activities. Given increasing water scarcity, the choice as to how each drop should be allocated and managed becomes central to maximizing social and economic benefits and ensuring sustainability.
Economic efficiency This effort also includes sectoral and cross sectoral actions for cleaner production, water reuse and recycling recognizing that freshwater is a limited resource, and investment in water projects must be viable. Economic efficiency also refers to financial sustainability to build, operate and maintain the diverse projects and facilities required to improve water access and assure water quality and quantity over the long-term through cost recovery and payment systems.
Social equity Social equity Water is a basic human need. It is also a central part of the basic rights all people are entitled to under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. When considered in this light, social equity is embedded in actions that support the sustainable management and use of water resources. Social equity requires that a fair share of water benefits and responsibilities be transmitted to women and men, poor and rich, young and old.
Social equity This means fair opportunities to access, use and control water resources, as well as equitable acceptance of responsibility for the negative side effects produced so as to avoid placing higher burdens on the poor or disadvantaged members of society.
In its abundance national infrastructure is destroyed placing heavy burden on social budgets
Due to poor management poor men and women bear the burden and pay price in health
Defining gender • Can you please write on a piece of paper what it is that you have wished to do had you been the opposite sex. • What stops you from doing that ? • Discuss what seems to be emerging
Defining Gender • Most of the barriers that stop us are social rather than biological. Society has expectations of how we should behave because of our sexual orientation. • Consequently we are trained through socialization to behave in a certain manner because we were born with male of female organs.
Sex Biological Given by birth Therefore cannot be changed Example Only women can give birth Only men can produce sperms and Impregnate Gender Cultural Learned through socialization Therefore Can be changed Example women and men can work as water managers, latrine builders, drillers, planners Women and men can take care of the sick, elderly and children Defining gender sex vs. gender
Defining gender Contd • `Gender can thus be defined as “ socially determined attributes, roles, activities and responsibilities connected to being male or female in a society.” • gender attributes vary from society to society, • are largely influenced by such factors as class, religion, ethnicity etc. • are not static and change over time being influenced by factors such as social, economic and political influences
Global commitments Importance of gender has been recognized globally: • UN conference on water at Mar del Plata 1997 • IDWSS decade 1981-90 • Conference on water and environment Dublin 1992 • Agenda 21 • International Decade for action on water and life 2005-2015
Gender overview • MDGS • CEDAW • Members states have various strategies on gender mainstreaming • SADC has the RISDP,ECOWAS,OAU, NEPAD,AMCAO • However…. All countries characterised by gender disparities …. Political, economic, social and cultural spheres.
Why its necessary to consider cross cutting issues “Anyone who can solve the water challenges in this world deserves a double Nobel prize “ Prof. Andreas Sollozi-Nargi Rector UNESCO IHE 11th symposium Victoria Falls 2010
Gender issues • Access and control over resources • Literacy and access to education • Access to and control over land • Capital or financial services • Skilled and unskilled work • Paid and unpaid labour • Gender budgets • Decesion making (water using vs decesion making community • Technology and participation
Water is a finite and valuable resource essential to sustaining life, development and the environment
Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water
Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic & social good
Water development and management should be based on participatory approach involving users, planners and policy makers at all levels
Gender mainstreaming • Know the difference between Gender equality and gender equity equality of opportunity and equity of outcomes: • equality of opportunity: this means that women , infected should have equal rights and entitlements to human, social, economic and cultural development, and an equal voice in civic and political life equity of outcomes: this means that the exercise of these rights and entitlements leads to outcomes which are fair and just.
Gender Analysis Gender analysis - a methodology to identify the roles and responsibilities of the various members of the household, their access and control over resources, benefits under prevailing institutional norms and mechanisms.
Different gender policies and strategies • Gender aware policies • Gender neutral policies • Gender redistribute policies • Gender blind policies
Malawi Case Study • In the 1980s the Malawian gvt designed an innovative system of community mgt for water supply to low income h/holds. • H/holds in 50 districts received water, but water bills were not paid. • Taps were opened at inappropriate times. • Water committees seldom met. • Investigations showed that, prior to this project, local men had had little or nothing to do with water mgt.
Malawi example • However, when the externally driven project was initiated, the men took control & the women took a back seat. • Tap committees were made up of 90% men, many of whom were away most of the time. • Efforts were made to integrate women into the process & guidelines for 60% women were set for tap committees. • Consultation with women was done separately, & male & female extension officers were used.
The Result • Payment of water bills increased. • Women became active & long serving members of tap committees. • Special training courses were organised for women in leadership, problem solving, financial mgt, hygiene & sanitation, & operation & maintenance. • Tap committees met regularly & attendance was good.
Malawi example • Hygiene & sanitation improved. Taps were opened & closed to the satisfaction of users. • There are many such examples of the benefits of gender sensitive policies giving rise to significant benefits at the local level.
Benefits of Gender Mainstreaming • Benefits arising from a gender sensitive approach generally lists five major areas of benefit: • efficiency, • effectiveness, • equity, • sustainability & • development at large.
Addressing gender for sustainable development Processing: food, diseases, ecosystem balance society • Livelihoods • Food • Fuel • Freshwater • soil Assimilative capacity Sink for wastes Manufactured financial capital Social capital Human capital Environment natural capital
Gender mainstreaming tools • Harvard framework • POP framework • Moser framework - Basically looking at who does what? who benefits who makes decisions? who pays the price?
HAVARD ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK Aim is to demonstrate that there is an economic case for allocating resources to men and women thus planners will design more efficient projects and improve productivity. It looks at roles and responsibilities, access and control, influencing factors.
PEOPLE ORINTED PLANNING FRAMEWORK • Similar to Harvard analytical framework • Aim is to ensure that there is equitable distribution of resources and services • Was adapted by UN for refugee situations to ensure that there is efficient use of donor resources and promote appropriate targeting. • Influenced by: • Change • Participation socio-demographic analysis • Uses activity profile and use and control of resources
WHERE AND WHEN ARE THEY USEFUL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Both frameworks are useful for micro level analysis especially for data collection and analysis. More useful for projects rather than programmes. Can be used at any stage of the project cycle. TRAINING Can be used in training to demonstrate the complexity of people’s lives
WHERE AND WHEN ARE THEY USEFUL AS GENDER NEUTRAL ENTRY POINTS Can be used for opening dialogue about gender disparities with those who do not want to acknowledge gender issues. The power dynamics are based on fact and not theory. IN COMMUNICATION The gender framework relies on economic argument for most efficient allocation of resources. The language is similar to that of economists and this may be useful in talking to people influenced by economic efficiency.
MOSER FRAMEWORK At the heart of this is ‘gender planning” and the assumption is that planning is not only a technical but both political and technical in nature, that there is conflict in planning, it is transformatory and that it is a debate. 3 categories of this framework; Women’s Triple Role, practical and strategic gender needs, categories of WID/GAD matrix TRIPPLE ROLE:PRODUCTIVE, REPRODUCTIVE, COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT
STRATEGIC AND PRACTICAL NEEDS WID/GAD- DISTINGUSHING BETWEEN THE AIMS OF THE PROGRAMME WELFARE APPROCAH- acknowledging women in their reproductive role, passive beneficiaries of development programmes/projects EQUITY- USED BY UN FOR PROMOTING EQUALITY (76-850 Direct state intervention to promote involvement of women in development tries to meet strategic needs of women through political and economic autonomy. Seen as threatening more on feminism and mostly western- alienates men.
ANTI POVERTY – aim is to see that poor women move out of their poverty by increasing their productivity. Problem is women’s poverty and not that of subordination. Tries to meet practical gender needs of raising incomes. EFFICIENCY- Ensure that development is more efficient and effective by harnessing women’s economic contribution. It assumes women’s participation as gender equity. That women’s time is elastic. EMPOWERMENT – empower women through supporting their own initiatives thus fostering self-reliance. Women’s experiences influenced by factors
such as class, age, religion. Seeks to meet both practical and strategic gender needs. Use of the tool PLANNING TRAINING Why does it appeal? Moves planning beyond technical Challenges inequality Talks to planners in their own language Practical and strategic gender needs a good way of assessing impact. Triple role makes all work visible Distinguishes between policy approaches
BUT DOES IT MATER WHICH TOOL YOU USE NOOOO- LARGELY DEPENDS ON OBJECTIVES