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Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition. Chapter 9 Networking with UNIX-Type of Operating Systems. Objectives. Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system Identify similarities and differences between popular implementations of UNIX

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network guide to networks fourth edition

Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition

Chapter 9

Networking with UNIX-Type of Operating Systems

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system
  • Identify similarities and differences between popular implementations of UNIX
  • Describe the features and capabilities of servers running Solaris, Linux, and Mac OS X Server
  • Explain and execute essential UNIX commands

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Install and configure Linux on an Intel-based PC
  • Manage users, groups, and file access permissions in Solaris, Linux, and Mac OS X Server
  • Explain how computers running other operating systems can connect to UNIX servers

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a brief history of unix
A Brief History of UNIX
  • UNIX led to development of TCP/IP
  • Numerous vendors sell different UNIX varieties
  • Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie developed UNIX at Bell Labs (part of AT&T)
    • System V
  • UNIX source code was cheaply available from AT&T
    • Quickly distributed to many organizations

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a brief history of unix continued
A Brief History of UNIX (continued)
  • Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD): Berkeley versions of UNIX
    • Added TCP/IP network subsystem to UNIX
  • AT&T sold rights to UNIX
    • Now owned by two groups:
      • The SCO Group owns rights to UNIX source code
      • The Open Group owns UNIX trademark

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

varieties of unix
Varieties of UNIX
  • All flavors of UNIX share the following features:
    • Support multiple, simultaneously logged-on users
    • Coordinate multiple, simultaneously running tasks
    • Mount disk partitions on demand
    • Apply permissions for file and directory access and modification
    • Uniform method of issuing data to or receiving data from hardware devices, files, and running programs
    • Start programs without interfering running programs

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

varieties of unix continued
Varieties of UNIX (continued)
  • All flavors of UNIX share the following features (continued):
    • Hundreds of subsystems, including dozens of programming languages
    • Source code portability
    • Window interfaces (e.g., X Windows)
  • Two main categories:
    • Proprietary
    • Open source

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

proprietary unix
Proprietary UNIX
  • Source code either unavailable or available only by purchasing licensed copy from the SCO Group
    • Mac OS X Server: Apple
      • Runs on PowerPC-based computers
    • Solaris: Sun
      • Runs on SPARC-based workstations and servers, Intel-based Pentium-class workstations and servers
    • AIX: IBM
      • Runs on PowerPC-based computers
      • Does not run on Macs

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

proprietary unix continued
Proprietary UNIX (continued)
  • Advantages:
    • Accountability and support
    • Optimization of hardware and software
    • Predictability and compatibility
  • Customer has no access to system’s source code
    • Cannot customize

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

open source unix
Open Source UNIX
  • Open source software available to anyone, without licensing fees
  • Open source UNIX flavors:
    • GNU
    • BSD
    • Linux
  • Users can modify code
    • Add functionality
  • Can be installed on wide range of systems

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

three flavors of unix
Three Flavors of UNIX
  • Solaris used by Sun Microsystems on its SPARC-based servers
  • Linux follows standard UNIX conventions, highly stable, and free
    • Developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991
    • Widely supported and used
  • Mac OS X Server: Runs on Apple’s Xserve line of computers as well as Power Mac computers
  • All support TCP/IP and other protocols
  • Support many network topologies and physical media

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

unix server hardware requirements
UNIX Server Hardware Requirements
  • Any UNIX-type OS can act as a workstation or server OS
  • Use of GUI optional
    • Command line interface
  • To estimate additional hardware required:
    • Server usage?
    • Applications and services to be run on server?
    • Number of users?
    • Peak usage time periods?
    • Maximum tolerable downtime?

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

solaris hardware requirements
Solaris Hardware Requirements

Table 9-1: Minimum hardware requirements for Solaris 10

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

linux hardware requirements
Linux Hardware Requirements

Table 9-2: Minimum hardware requirements for a Linux server

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

mac os x server hardware requirements
Mac OS X Server Hardware Requirements

Table 9-3: Apple hardware recommendations for Mac OS X Server

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a closer look at unix unix multiprocessing
A Closer Look at UNIX: UNIX Multiprocessing
  • Allocate separate resources (e.g., memory space) to each process as it is created
    • Enables partitioning of processes in memory
    • Prevent programs from disrupting operation of entire system
  • Support symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
    • Solaris: up to 128 processors
    • Linux: up to 32 processors
    • Mac OS X Server: up to 2 processors

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

the unix memory model
The UNIX Memory Model
  • Use both physical and virtual memory efficiently
  • Allocate memory area for each application
    • Sharing memory between programs wherever possible
      • Increases efficiency
  • Most use 32-bit addressing scheme
    • Enables programs to access 4 GB of memory
  • Most can run on CPUs employing 64-bit addresses
  • Virtual memory: disk partition or a file

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

the unix kernel
The UNIX Kernel
  • Core of all UNIX-type of systems
    • Loaded into memory and runs computer turned on
    • Coordinates access to computer’s hardware
    • Can add or remove functionality by loading and unloading kernel modules
      • Files containing instructions for performing specific tasks
  • Kernel origins:
    • Solaris: original AT&T UNIX software
    • Linux: Linus Torvalds
    • Mac OS X Server (XNU): Mach

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

unix system file and directory structure
UNIX System File and Directory Structure
  • First OSs to implement hierarchical file system
    • /boot directory contains kernel and other system initialization files
    • Applications and services stored in /bin and /sbin directories
    • /var directory holds variable data
    • Users’ login directories typically in /home
      • /Users on Mac OS X Server

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

unix system file and directory structure continued
UNIX System File and Directory Structure (continued)

Figure 9-1: UNIX file system hierarchy

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

unix system file services
UNIX System File Services
  • Disk File Systems:
    • OS’s facility for organizing, managing, and accessing files through logical structures and software routines
    • Native file system type on Linux is ext3
    • Solaris employs UFS
    • Mac OS X Server employs HFS+ file system
    • Can access FAT and NTFS partitions

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

unix system file services continued
UNIX System File Services (continued)
  • Network File Systems (NFSs): analogous to Windows shares or NetWare network volumes
    • Attach shared file systems (or drives) from Windows, NetWare, or other UNIX servers and share files with users on other computers
    • Sun Microsystems’ NFS
    • Samba: open source application that implements Windows SMB and CIFS file system protocols
      • Included with Solaris, most Linux distributions, and Mac OS X Server systems by default
    • Mac OS X Server uses AFP

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a unix command sampler
A UNIX Command Sampler
  • Command line is primary method of interacting with UNIX-type systems
  • Command interpreter (shell): program that accepts and runs typed commands
    • Primary UNIX command interpreter file is /bin/sh
  • Every UNIX-type system contains full documentation of UNIX commands in manual pages (man pages)
    • Access via man command

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a unix command sampler continued
A UNIX Command Sampler (continued)
  • Nine man page sections:
    • Section 1 covers commands most typically entered
    • Sections 2 through 5 document programmer’s interface to UNIX system
    • Section 6 documents some amusements and games included in UNIX system
    • Section 7 describes device drivers
    • Section 8 covers commands used by administrators to manage system
    • Section 9 documents UNIX kernel functions programmers use when writing device drivers

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a unix command sampler continued1
A UNIX Command Sampler (continued)
  • apropos command: find possible manual page entries for a command
  • Most commands are lowercase alphabetic characters
  • To specify an option, usually type a hyphen (-) followed by a letter
  • File globbing: equivalent to using wildcards in Windows and DOS
  • UNIX directory separator character is “/”

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a unix command sampler continued2
A UNIX Command Sampler (continued)

Table 9-4: Commonly used UNIX commands

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a unix command sampler continued3
A UNIX Command Sampler (continued)

Table 9-4 (continued): Commonly used UNIX commands

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a unix command sampler continued4
A UNIX Command Sampler (continued)

Table 9-4 (continued): Commonly used UNIX commands

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a unix command sampler continued5
A UNIX Command Sampler (continued)
  • Most frequently used UNIX command is ls
  • For each file, system stores all information (except filename) in a file information node (i-node)
    • Beginning of disk partitions contain reserved space for all i-nodes on partition
    • Contain pointers to actual file contents
  • Pipe (|): combine commands
    • Output of one command is input to next
    • Pipeline: two or more commands connected by a pipe

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

a unix command sampler continued6
A UNIX Command Sampler (continued)

Figure 9-3: Anatomy of ls –l output

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

installing linux planning a linux installation
Installing Linux: Planning a Linux Installation
  • Be prepared to answer following questions:
    • What is the new server’s name?
    • What is the server’s IP address?
      • Also need subnet mask, IP address of server’s primary gateway, and IP address of new server’s domain name server
    • What kind of video card is installed in the server?
    • What is the administrative user’s password?
      • Root: administrating user name
    • How can this information be remembered?

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

installing and configuring fedora core
Installing and Configuring Fedora Core
  • Installation tasks:
    • Select language
    • Confirm keyboard layout
    • Select Server installation type
    • Select disk drive partitioning options
    • Choose booting options
    • Configure the network interface(s)
    • Configure firewall and security level options
    • Set the time and time zone
    • Enter the root password

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

administering a unix type of server
Administering a UNIX-type of Server
  • User names and passwords used to connect clients to network
  • Access rights for groups
    • Users may be members of multiple groups
  • groupadd command enables addition of new group
  • useradd command enables addition of new users
  • Mac OS X Server uses GUI Workgroup Manager application

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

establishing groups and users on linux and solaris
Establishing Groups and Users on Linux and Solaris
  • groupadd command creates new group ID and makes group available for use
    • Assign unique ID number to each group
    • Does not automatically assign access rights
  • useradd command adds new user ID
    • Creates user ID and assigns it to one or more groups
    • -g option specifies initial group
    • -G option specifies additional groups

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

establishing groups and user on mac os x server
Establishing Groups and User on Mac OS X Server
  • Use Workgroup Managerapplication
  • Creating new group does not assign users
  • Assign unique name and numeric ID to groups

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

establishing groups and user on mac os x server continued
Establishing Groups and User on Mac OS X Server (continued)

Figure 9-4: User creation in Mac OS X Server’s Workgroup Manager

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

changing file access permissions
Changing File Access Permissions
  • Every file and directory is owned by exactly one user and is a member of exactly one group
  • By default, when a user creates a file or directory, that user is the file or directory’s owner

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

changing file access permissions on linux and solaris
Changing File Access Permissions on Linux and Solaris
  • Use chgrp command to assign a file or directory to a group
  • Use chmod command to change file and directory permissions
    • Uses two sets of abbreviations to specify permission changes for files
      • First set identifies for whom change will occur [file’s owner (u for “user”), file’s group (g), all others (o)]
      • Second set identifies access rights [read (r), write (w), and execute (x)]
      • Separated by plus or minus sign

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

changing file access permissions on mac os x server
Changing File Access Permissions on Mac OS X Server
  • Accomplished through the GUI
  • Must be logged on as system administrator

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

connecting to unix type of servers
Connecting to UNIX-Type of Servers
  • UNIX-type of systems and Windows can both communicate via TCP/IP
    • File systems not necessarily compatible
  • Samba: one application that bridges file system incompatibility
    • Provides networking services necessary to make a UNIX-type system a fully featured Windows file- and printer-sharing server
    • Communicates with Windows servers using SMB file-sharing protocol and CIFS protocol

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

connecting to unix type of servers continued
Connecting to UNIX-Type of Servers (continued)
  • All modern flavors of UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X Server support data sharing using directory services based on LDAP
    • Solaris: Sun Java System Directory Server Enterprise Edition
    • Linux: OpenLDAP
    • Mac OS X Server: Open Directory
  • UNIX-type of systems include full complement of Internet tools
    • e.g., Telnet

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

connecting to unix type of servers continued1
Connecting to UNIX-Type of Servers (continued)

Figure 9-5: Windows Telnet session

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

summary
Summary
  • UNIX is a stable, flexible, and efficient NOS that relies on TCP/IP and forms the basis of much of the Internet
  • Many varieties of UNIX-type of systems exist, and each of these belong to one of two categories: proprietary and open source
  • Characteristics of UNIX-type of systems include the ability to support multiple, simultaneous users; hierarchical files; a uniform method for interacting with files, devices, and programs; hundreds of subsystems and dozens of programming languages; and source code portability

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • UNIX-type of systems use virtual memory and also allocate a memory area for each application
  • The UNIX kernel, the core of the OS, is loaded into memory from disk and runs when you turn on your computer
  • UNIX-type of systems were among the first to include a hierarchical file system
  • UNIX-type of systems support multiple file system types
  • UNIX-type of network file systems include NFS and Samba

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

summary continued1
Summary (continued)
  • Consult the command’s manual (man) page by typing man command at the shell prompt, and pressing Enter to learn more about a command
  • ls command is most frequently used command
  • The useradd and groupadd commands allow you to add new users and groups
  • The chgrp and chmod commands assign files to groups and change file access permissions

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e

summary continued2
Summary (continued)
  • Installing the Samba application on a UNIX-type of server allows it to exchange information with Windows servers by using Windows file system and file access protocols
  • All modern flavors of UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X Server support data sharing using directory services based on LDAP
  • Any client that runs the TCP/IP protocol can connect to a UNIX-type of host, such as a Linux server, through the Telnet utility

Network+ Guide to Networks, 4e