Health Beginnings 2014 Stage 2. Short Health history Biopsychsocial model of health Health Belief model Problems of changing health behaviour. A little Health history…. A long time ago , centuries actually… All illnesses were thought to be caused by evil spirits in the body
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Health Beginnings2014Stage 2 Short Health history Biopsychsocial model of health Health Belief model Problems of changing health behaviour
A little Health history… A long time ago, centuries actually… • All illnesses were thought to be caused by evil spirits in the body • Solution – drill a hole in the skull to allow the spirits to escape TREPANNING** 4th Century – Greek theorists thought illness was caused by the imbalance of humors(fluids) in the body • restoring health involved achieving a balanced diet – very modern approach!!
A little Health history… • Middle Ages (400-1500) – Illness caused by mystical forces – God’s punishment for wrong doing** Priests and Sisters/Monks acted as Doctors E.g. Bubonic Plague killed 25 million people in Europe in 5 years and was attributed to God not being happy with his world
Up to 20th Century • Up to 20th Century – Health was a physiological concern and was seen that medicine and surgery were the solutions. • No real regard for social, emotional, mental and environmental factors (spiritual was ignored too * evil spirits don’t express its modern meaning!) Led to the - Biopyschsocial model of Health
Biopyschsocial model of Health Health status is determined by our – • Biology (Physical) • Psychology (Mental) • Social factors (Social) **Link to WHO definition of Health Treating health successfully requires consideration of all three determinants WHY?
Well… • Our health status changes constantly and is not based simply upon physical factors • We don’t just measure our health upon • High body temperature • High blood pressure • Suffering from an illness – colds, influenza 20th and 21st Century health - many different factors
Video time… 5 minute video The main factors that contribute to Lifestyle diseases in the 21st Century Lifestyle diseases in 21st Century Handout questions**
Back in history …. • Before 1950 – main causes of illness were infectious diseases (pneumonia and tuberculosis) – physical focus • After 1950 – Main causes of death are cancer, heart disease and strokes (preventable) – more than physical focus Key point – Our health today is more “lifestyle based” and within our own control • Health expertise can now deal with many physical problems but we need support of our social, mental and spiritual aspects too
Causes of Death in 21st Century Leading underlying specific causes of deaths for all ages and gender focused 2009 ** Source – Australia Health report (AIHW 2012, p.109) Conclusions • All main causes of death are health compromising behaviours (lifestyle choices) 2. Need for individual behavioural change and health promoting action by authorities
Health Belief model • Any poor health habits?? List… Poor driving habits Exercise inactivity High sugar intake Excess smoking/Alcohol How can we change these behaviours??
Health Belief Model Will we change our poor habits regarding our health and suffer from illness or an accident? It depends upon responses to 4 questions – Ask yourself • Will I get an illness or have an accident? Susceptibility • Will the illness/accident disrupt my life? Severity • Will changing my behaviour improve my health? Cost/Benefit analysis • What external support will help me? Cues to act
Health Belief Model Q. Will I change my behaviour to prevent a future accident? If you believe that by driving fast – • Susceptibility – I have no fear > no change • Severity – car accident may cause me a few cuts and bruises > no change • Cost/Benefit – gives me a thrill as opposed to slowing down that is boring > no change • Cues to act – friends enjoy the speed in the car too > no change Conclude – no change in behaviour >Continue driving fast!!
So… To change behaviour…you have to change your beliefs • Knowledge and understanding is needed but it is not enough • Having an attitude to change behaviour backed up with the belief that good things will happen to you is critical for positive health change
Problems of changing behaviour We seek out easy and quick fixes to gain pleasures that make us feel better e.g. Adrenaline urges, social status Changing our behaviour is often too hard e.g. Exercise is harder than not exercising e.g. Cooking a meal is harder than buying takeaway So, we compromise our health because we are often lazy or not disciplined to change
Problems of changing behaviour We deliberately ignore the problem even though we know our behaviour is poor. Young people feel invincible to illness and accident • Illness is an old person’s concern, • Risk taking behaviour is cool, • It will not happen to me!! Excess alcohol The Benefits of having fun and being social at a party with alcohol outweigh the costs of nausea and dehydration side effects later
Problems of changing behaviour Genetics and Learning Both factors increase the likelihood of engaging in unhealthy behaviour e.g. Children of obese parents more likely to have genetic tendencies for heart disease and hypertension Modelling – learning about good healthy messages is likely to determine a healthy Lifestyle **Copying mum and dad’s habits
Problems of changing behaviour “What we don’t know, won’t hurt us” Preventative health care – what do we do to prevent us suffering from poor health status? *Knowledge *Attitude Those less likely to get a screen test – skin, heart, eyes, general check • Uneducated • Low Income • Low socio economic status • No access to health care facilities • Poor body image • Poor perception of dealing with own health problem Females – more conscious, more checks and visits to get screened Males – greater risk takers, ignorant and scared of what might be!
Problems of changing behaviour Self preservation We don’t change because of what others may think!! • ego, social status, fitting in, appearing cool E.g. Poor Condom use • Concerned about what others may think/say e.g. ‘seen as a wimp’, you have a STD or a presumptuous attitude • Creates embarrassment and stigma issues The Condom Tree programme
Condom Tree programme • Indigenous focus – West Oz • Aim to reduce high STD incidence in communities Idea to leave condoms hanging on trees in open areas especially in ‘hang out’ areas for 15-25 year olds, 24/7 • Removes embarrassment of buying in shops Overcomes problem of self preservation and having to maintain a certain image
Conclusion Key findings • Health involves a range of dimensions as seen in the Biopsychsocial model • 21st Century focus is upon lifestyle health choices • Changing health behaviour is shown in the Health Belief model • Changing behaviour has many problems • There is a lot of work to do to improve and maintain our Health status