afro caribbean spiritualities n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Afro-Caribbean Spiritualities PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Afro-Caribbean Spiritualities

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 16

Afro-Caribbean Spiritualities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 120 Views
  • Uploaded on

Afro-Caribbean Spiritualities. Many linguistic and religious traditions in Africa Dahomean (from Dahomey) Nigeria and Benin Yoruban (from Yoruba) “Slave Coast”. Historical Precursors. African Religions Dahomean Spiritual Hierarchy: Nana-Buluku Mawu-Lisa Da Vodou (gods)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Afro-Caribbean Spiritualities' - sven


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
afro caribbean spiritualities
Afro-Caribbean Spiritualities
  • Many linguistic and religious traditions in Africa
  • Dahomean (from Dahomey)
  • Nigeria and Benin
  • Yoruban (from Yoruba)
  • “Slave Coast”
historical precursors
Historical Precursors
  • African Religions
  • Dahomean
  • Spiritual Hierarchy:
    • Nana-Buluku
    • Mawu-Lisa
    • Da
    • Vodou (gods)
      • Legba (intermediary)
      • Sakpata (earth)
      • Sogbo (sky)
      • Agbe (water)
historical precursors1
Historical Precursors
  • Dahomean hierarchy, continued:
    • Nature Spirits
    • Ancestors
    • Humans
      • Ancestral soul
      • Personal soul
      • Divine soul
    • Animals
    • Objects
historical precursors2
Historical Precursors
  • The Slave Trade
  • Native American:
    • Arawak
    • Ciboney
    • Population on Haiti 60,000 in 1508, 500 in 1548
    • Population on Cuba 60,000 in 1492, 1500 in 1550
    • Smudging, herbal lore
  • European Undesireables:
    • Jews, Muslims, Moors, “Heretics,” Ladinos
    • Folk traditions
  • Racial Slavery

“Indians Punished” 1532

the slave trade
The Slave Trade
  • The African Trade
  • Haiti:
    • 1515-1730: 200 slaves per year
    • 1730-1792: 13,000 slaves per year
  • Cuba:
    • 1511-1788: 360 slaves per year
    • 1781-1865: 7,000 slaves per year

Slaves on the Middle Passage

the slave trade1
The Slave Trade
  • Slavery Experience:
    • Mostly male
    • 8-10% died during “Middle Passage”
    • 8-10% died per year on plantations
    • ‘Breeding’ slaves a U.S. phenomenon
    • Female slaves after 1840 in Cuba

“Punishing Slaves in Cuba” 1860’s

impact of slave trade
Impact of Slave Trade
  • Changes to belief & ritual structure of African religions
    • Nature Spirituality lost
    • Ancestor worship lost
    • New level of cosmos conceptualized: Ginen
    • New Vodou (lwas) discovered – angry deities
  • Changes to system of transmission of beliefs
    • Old ways: 1) inheritance 2) childbirth 3) illness
    • New ways: adoption via initiation into lineage
forced christianization
Forced Christianization
  • Africans had no “true” religion
  • Conversion would make slaves accept their fate as part of God’s plan
  • Code Noir 1685
  • Revisions to Code Noir mid-18th c.:
    • slaves cannot congregate except in presence of priest
    • Penalties for violation: branding, whipping, death
    • Slave owners who allow their slaves to congregate fined 100 gold crowns; second offence could be punished with life imprisonment on slave galley ships

Caption (translated): Exorcism-Baptism of the Negroes.

slave catechism
Slave Catechism
  • Who is the principal slave of Satan'? – the principal slave of Satan is the houngan [vodou priest].
  • What are the names given by houngan to Satan? – The names given to Satan by houngan are loas [the term for the gods], angels, saints morts [venerated ancestors], and marass [the divine twins].
  • Why do houngan give Satan the names of angels, saints, and morts? – Houngan call Satan after saints, angels and morts in order to deceive us more easily.
  • How do men serve Satan'? – In sinning, casting spells, practicing magic, giving food-offerings, worshipping les anges, worshipping marassa.
  • Are we allowed to mingle with the slaves of Satan? – No, because they are evil-doers; like Satan himself they are liars.”

“Negro prayer meeting” 19th c.

folk catholicism
Folk Catholicism
  • Official Catholicism:
    • Baptism
    • confirmation
    • matrimony
    • extreme unction
    • Eucharist
    • penance
    • holy orders

The Seven African Powers

folk catholicism1
Folk Catholicism
  • Independent of Church control
  • Cult of Personages (Cult of Saints) including Mary & Jesus
  • God in places, objects: candles, statues, relics
  • God in everyday life: feasts, prayer without priestly intercession could bring God’s aid
  • Public religion – processions, feast days
  • Emphasis on death (martyrdom)
  • Focus on religious value of weak and downtrodden

"an old-time midnight slave funeral” 1881

haitian revolution
Haitian Revolution
  • August 22, 1791
  • Ratio of slaves:owners = 100:1
  • Large numbers of escaped slaves
  • Boukman
  • Francois L’Overture
  • Jean-Jacques Dessalines
  • Republic of Haiti Nov. 28, 1803 - 70,000 Haitians, 70,000 french soldiers dead
haitian revolution1
Haitian Revolution
  • Significance:
  • Republic of Haiti without Official Catholic influence for about 50 years – room for Vodou to flourish
  • 1791—1803, Fleeing Slave-owners go to Cuba – bring Vodou with slaves to Cuba
  • 1809 – banished from Cuba, Slave-owners go to Louisiana – bring Vodou to New Orleans

Jean-Jacques Dessalines

spiritism
Spiritism
  • Allan Kardec (Hyppolyte Leon Denizard Rivail)
  • Investigation into Spiritualism
  • The Spirits’ Book (1857)
  • 3 types of souls: recently dead & impure souls; reincarnated human souls; evolved spirits of light
  • Many worlds of beings: earth is 3rd world; spirits of light are on 7th and highest world
  • God is distant from human concerns; spirits of light are closer to us, and help us
  • Karma governs reincarnation
spiritism1
Spiritism
  • Communication via mediumship with spirits
  • Spirits of recently dead can communicate with us and help us
  • Ancestors, friends speak via spirits of light who possess mediums - blends seamlessly with African emphasis on ancestors and gods/lwas
  • Spiritist services are called Misa: they are seances with possession trance, messages from the dead - become major way Vodou practitioners communicate with ancestors and/or divine