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WIND POWER

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  1. WIND POWER

  2. Introduction

  3. Energy is a major input for overall socio-economic development of any society • The prices of the fossil fuels steeply increasing • So renewables are expected to play a key role • Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable • Wind turbines are up to the task of producing serious amounts of electricity

  4. Principles

  5. Uneven heating of earth’s surface and rotation

  6. Velocity with Height

  7. Power vs. Velocity

  8. Lift and drag forces

  9. Solidity and Tip speed ratio

  10. Performance co-efficient and Betz criterion

  11. Potential

  12. Huge potential exists • Available potential can contribute five times the world energy demand • 0.4% contribution to total energy

  13. Wind is currently the world’s fastest growing energy source

  14. Growth of Wind Energy MW Installed Year

  15. Wind Energy generating capacity by country, 1980-2003

  16. Installed Capacity (MW) in 2005

  17. Available potential in India

  18. Wind Power Density of India

  19. All India Fuel wise Installed Capacity, 2004

  20. State wise potential in India, 2005

  21. Technology

  22. Turbine Evolution • Used for • Pumping water • Grinding grain • Mainly used for • Generating Electricity

  23. Types of turbines VAWT • Drag is the main force • Nacelle is placed at the bottom • Yaw mechanism is not required • Lower starting torque • Difficulty in mounting the turbine • Unwanted fluctuations in the power output

  24. HAWT • Lift is the main force • Much lower cyclic stresses • 95% of the existing turbines are HAWTs • Nacelle is placed at the top of the tower • Yaw mechanism is required

  25. Two types of HAWT DOWNWIND TURBINE UPWIND TURBINE

  26. Counter Rotating HAWT • Increase the rotation speed • Rear one is smaller and stalls at high wind speeds • Operates for wider range of wind speeds

  27. Offshore turbines • More wind speeds • Less noise pollution • Less visual impact • Difficult to install and maintain • Energy losses due long distance transport

  28. A Typical HAWT

  29. Turbine design and construction • Blades • Material used • Typical length • Tower height • Heights twice the blade length are found economical

  30. Number of blades • Three blade HAWT are most efficient • Two blade turbines don’t require a hub • As the number increases; noise, wear and cost increase and efficiency decreases • Multiple blade turbines are generally used for water pumping purposes

  31. Rotational control • Maintenance • Noise reduction • Centripetal force reduction • Mechanisms • Stalling • Furling

  32. Yaw Mechanism • To turn the turbine against the wind • Yaw error and fatigue loads • Uses electric motors and gear boxes • Wind turbine safety • Sensors – controlling vibrations • Over speed protection • Aero dynamic braking • Mechanical braking

  33. Improvements • Concentrators

  34. Future Wind Turbines Wind Amplified Rotor Platform

  35. Disc type wind turbine • Much more efficient than HAWT • Requires less height • Low noise • Works in any wind direction

  36. Economics

  37. Determining Factors • Wind Speed • Turbine design and construction • Rated capacity of the turbine • Exact Location • Improvements in turbine design • Capital

  38. Wind Speed Matters Assuming the same size project, the better the wind resource, the lower the cost.

  39. Size Matters Assuming the same wind speed of 8.08 m/s, a large wind farm is more economical

  40. Overall cost distribution

  41. Break down of capital cost

  42. Energy Cost Trend 1979: 40 cents/kWh 2000: 4 - 6 cents/kWh • Increased Turbine Size • R&D Advances • Manufacturing Improvements 2004: 3 – 4.5 cents/kWh

  43. Typical cost statistics • Size: 51 MW • Wind Speed: 13-18 miles/hour • Capital cost: $ 65 million ($1300/MW) • Annual production: 150 million kW-hr • Electricity costs: 3.6-4.5 cents • Payback period: 20 years

  44. Economic Advantages

  45. Greater fuel diversity • No delay in construction • Low maintenance costs • Reliable and durable equipment • Additional income to land owners • More jobs per unit energy produced • No hidden costs