Introductions and Conclusions: • Primacy-Recency effect: The audience is more likely to remember the first and last items conveyed orally in a series than the items in between.
Goals of the Introduction: (page 287) • Attention Getter • Listener Relevance • Speaker Credibility • Preview of Main Points (thesis) The introduction is usually only 10-15% of the length of your entire speech.
Attention Getters: Create an opening that will win your audience’s attention: (page 287) • Use of startling fact or statistic • Ask a rhetorical question (question seeking a mental response rather than a direct response) • Use a quotation • Tell a short story • Use humor (not reccommended……) • Perform a task (action, video clip, etc.)
Listener Relevance: (page 289) • A Listener relevance link is a statement of how and why your speech relates to or might affect your audience. • Sometimes, your attention getter will serve this function. Therefore, it might not be necessary to include an additional listener relevance statement.
Speaker Credibility: (page 290) • This builds your authority on the subject and convinces your audience that you are a reliable and credible speaker. • Sometimes, your attention getter will serve this function. Therefore, it might not be necessary to include an additional speaker credibility statement. • Anytime you use a statistic, fact, or quotation (and provide citations), you are proving that you researched your topic.
Preview of Points (Thesis) • You must preview your main points. Be straightforward! This also serves as your thesis statement.
Goals of the Conclusion: (page 291) • Signal Conclusion / Review main points • Clincher / call to action The introduction is seldom no more than 5% of the length of your entire speech.
Signal Conclusion / Review Main Points: • Signal conclusion verbally and nonverbally: • Verbally – Simply say “In conlcusion.” • Nonverbally – Slow speech rate. Pause. Step closer to audience. • Remind your audience of your main points: • So, in conclusion, we have discussed the three most common types of eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, and obesity.
Clincher: • A one to two sentence statement that provides a sense of closure. This is usually accomplished by providing one of the attention getters discussed earlier. You can also refer back to your attention getter to give a nice “book-end” effect. • If doing a persuasive speech, you can leave your audience with an “call to action” that describes the behavior you want your listeners to follow.
Introduction example: • (Attention Getter / Listener Relevance / Speaker Credibility) Take a moment and think about 5 women in your life. Now imagine one of them having an eating disorder. This information came Paula Kruger’s July 20, 2007 article titled “1 in 5 girls display eating disorder behavior: study” found on the ABC news website. • (Listener Relevance / Speaker Credibility) Learning about common eating disorders is crucial, because according to the same article, the number of teenage girls with eating disorders has doubled in the past six years. • (Preview of Points / Thesis) So, today, we will take a closer look at three common eating disorders facing our nation: anorexia, bulimia, and obesity.
Conclusion example: • (Signal Conclusion / Review of Main Points) In conclusion, today we have examined three common eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, and obesity. • (Clincher) Take a moment and think back to those five women in your life. How can use the information learned today to hopefully identity and combat this growing problem?